Swear words in any language are emotionally charged and are, as you say, highly intertwined with a language's culture. Some languages use religious imagery (Sweden: "jävlar!" Québécois French: "Tabernacle!") and some use sexual imagery (Polish: "kurwa!", Italian: "Che cazzo!").
Any language also invents milder forms of these, so as not to "name the devil": Swedish "järnvägars!" (as having to do with railroads) or "järnspikar!" (iron nails). Italian: "Che cavolo!" (what cabbage!)
As a result of the intermingling of cultures and languages in Eo, we have a richness of expressions, ranging from the religious "Diable!" to the Slavic "Iru kacen!" (example glumarko.) The international (or at least Germanic) expression "Schiet!" (low German) has its parallel in Esperanto: "Fek^!".
On a related point, psychological research shows that swear words aren't "saved" in the brain with the other words - we can lose many of our language abilities to aphasia but keep the swearing. That they are highly emotionally charged in our native languages is the reason we might be reluctant to use them in our mother tongue, but pepper our language with "Fuck!" and "Vaffanculo!" in other languages to feel more fluent. I'd say this probably makes it easier for us L2 Esperanto speakers to swear in Esperanto.
For a thorough course in at least the sexual side of swearing in Esperanto, I suggest: How to talk dirty in Esperanto
For a more thorough overview on this topic, see: Esperanto swearing