Is it possible to construct Esperanto words ending with -iĝata, -iĝanta, -iganta, and -igata? For example, could I build humiligata, humiliĝata, humiliĝanta, and humiliganta from humila (humiliating)? What is the meaning of the resulting words?

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    ĉar -iĝ faras verbon netranistiva, sen objekto, -iĝata ne eblu.
    – Joop Eggen
    Commented Oct 1, 2016 at 14:01

1 Answer 1


Short answer :

You won't come across that type of constructions very often except for some scarce words like "devigata".

Correction answer:

For Humili, it's important to know that it comes from Humila, like Ruĝi comes from Ruĝa. Root verbs can independently be transitive or intransitive. Humili means "esti humila", being modest (humileco means humility, not humiliation) as ruĝi means "esti ruĝa". To humiliate would be "humiligi", to make someone "humila". This is why I don't like the traditional explanation of "igi" and "iĝi", it confuses about what is transitive and what is not. The simplest way to explain it is to understand iĝi as "to become (state related to the root word)", and igi, "to make Object do Root Verb", the root verb being transitive ("manĝigi", to make someone eat (something)) or not ("ruĝigi, to make someone (to be) red").

Long answer :

So, to explain it better, I'll be using "lavi" (wash), as it is known to be transitive, and "ĝoji" (to be joyful) wich is also easily understandable, and intransitive. Humili here works like "ĝoji".

  • Lavi : to wash
  • Lava : Related to washing.
  • Lavanta : being washing (someone or something)
  • Lavata : washed (being washed right now).
  • Lavigi : to make someone wash (something).
  • Laviganta : being making someone wash (something)
  • Lavigata : (adj) Being "forced" to wash, to be washing by the will of someone else.*
  • Laviĝi : to get washed (by someone/something or oneself)
  • Laviĝanta : being getting washed (by someone/sthing or oneself)
  • Laviĝata : nonsense (ata doesn't get used with intransitive verbs)

Now, ĝoji :

  • ĝoji : to be Joyful
  • ĝoja : Happy, Joyful.
  • ĝojanta : being being joyful '-_-
  • ĝojata : nonsense (ata doesn't get used with intransitive verbs)
  • ĝojigi : to make someone be joyful, to rejoice, gladden
  • ĝojiga : (adj) making joyful, rejoicing.
  • ĝojiganta : being making someone joyful, being rejoicing.
  • ĝojigata : (adj) being gladenned (by someone/something)
  • ĝojiĝi : to get joyful, to be delighted
  • ĝojiĝanta : (adj)being getting joyful, becoming delighted
  • ĝojiĝata : nonsense (ata doesn't get used with intransitive verbs)

It would be worth to find some drawings on the internet, they are easier to understand. I know this answer is very big, but it gets clearer how works -iĝ, -ig, -a, -ata, and their combinaisons.

*I have a small doubt here. Could someone verify this ?

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    So for the transitive verbs, there is a strong connection between -ata and -igxanta? I'd say there is barely a difference. Commented Oct 1, 2016 at 12:13
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    The difference is dispensable, -igxanta somehow focuses on the progression of the action being experienced, while -ata focuses on the action being experienced itself. It's difficult to explain in english, because -anta can't be translated to a word. In french, mangxiganta would mean "en train de devenir mangé" and mangxata "mangé (tout de suite)". Sort of "on the way of becoming eaten" and "eaten right now", respectively. It sounds like bad english, but I can't do better... Commented Oct 8, 2016 at 9:38

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