I have seen "panjo" very often, and "paĉjo" a couple of times. Are "franjo" and "fraĉjo" common too? What about grandparents? I'm having trouble combining "avo" and -ĉjo. I'm thinking filo would make fiĉjo, but it doesn't look quite as natural as paĉjo. Is it correct?


I have definitely seen franjo and fraĉjo and I use them myself.

Here is a PMEG page describing possible familiar ways a person might call their family: Parencoj kaj familianoj

Antono nomas Hugon Fraĉjo, kaj li nomas Mesalinon Franjo.

Antono havas unu onklon, Petro (frato de lia patrino). Li nomas lin oĉjo Petro, aŭ simple Oĉjo

Nino havas du avojn, Adamo (la patro de ŝia patro) kaj Danielo (la patro de ŝia patrino). Ŝi nomas ilin Aveto, Avĉjo aŭ simile

I would think as long as someone doesn't object to someone adding one of these diminutives onto their name or family role, it's fine to use, at least within their particular family, and wouldn't be very confusing for outsiders.

As this PMEG page says: "La ekzemplo ne elĉerpas la eblojn plene. Ankoraŭ pli da vortoj estas fareblaj per diversaj afiksoj kaj afiksecaj elementoj." -- to me this seems to be clarifying that there's many possibilities regarding what a family might call each other.


Zamenhof said himself: "Por karesaj formoj oni povas uzi 'ĉj (nj)' kaj ankaŭ 'et' (Patreto, patrineto, paĉjo, panjo). La 'ĉj' kaj 'nj' estas uzataj nur en nomoj kaj en 'patro' kaj 'patrino'; en ĉiuj aliaj okazoj oni karesas per 'et'." (Lingvaj Respondoj, pg. 12).

As illustrated by Kat Ño's answer, people don't always follow that rule. I do know that avinjo is used for grandmothers (there are 63 occurrences of it in tekstaro) as well as avĉjo for grandfathers. However, if you want to be very definitely correct, you should use aveto, avineto, frateto, fratineto, etc.

  • 1
    Isn't frateto the equivalent of "little brother"? – Antonia Montaro Oct 9 '16 at 21:14
  • It might be as ambiguous as English is, because you could call your big brother "little brother" and be referring to something else except the age difference. – Charlotte SL Oct 9 '16 at 21:42
  • According to PIV, "frateto" is "Karesa alnomo al pli juna frato", so a combination of both. :P This ambiguity/confusion is probably why people started using -ĉjo/-njo for words besides "patro" and "patrino". – Chives Oct 10 '16 at 0:23

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