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Both festo and ferio seem to generally translate to English as "holiday", but are they actually interchangeable, or is there a difference that the English translation doesn't preserve?

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They're different. While "holiday" is a valid translation for both, the two have different meanings (which are preserved in English). The PIV has the following definitions for the two words:

festo. Publikaj aŭ privataj ceremonioj k plezuroj por festi iun okazaĵon: festo de Kristnasko, de Budhonasko, de Pasko, de Pentekosto, de la Unua de Majo, de la 14a de Julio; edziĝa festo; intima festo; ĝojan feston! (deziresprimo); kies gasto mi estas, ties feston mi festas; ofta festo, malplena kesto; post la fasto venas festo; enmeti specialan feston por mia honoro; niaj kongresoj fariĝos konstanta festo de la homa frateco; profani nian feston per semado de malpaco.

ferio. Libera tago, dum kiu oni rajtas ne labori: havi ferion okaze de la vizito de regnestro; kiam komenciĝos viaj ferioj?; la someraj, vintraj, lernejaj ferioj; banka ferio (en kiu la bankoj estas leĝe fermitaj).

Per these definitions, a festo is a celebration of some occasion, while a ferio is a day on which one's entitled to not work. Obviously there's some overlap; Kristnasko (or Christmas) is part of the definition of festo, but for many people it's also a ferio.

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