7

Since the -um- suffix is undefined, is there any list of words that use it and say what they mean?

4

Source: http://pages.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/eo/colloq/colloq130.html#sec13-2

The suffix -um- is used to produce idiosyncratic derivatives from roots (most often nouns) when other suffixes are inappropriate to the purpose. Here are the most common ones:

  • butiko = a shop butikumi = to shop
  • cerbo = brain cerbumi = rack one’s brains
  • kruco = cross krucumi = to crucify
  • kubuto = elbow kubutumi = to elbow people (in a crowd)
  • malvarma = cold malvarmumo = a cold
  • mastro = master (of house, etc.) mastrumi = attain mastery over
  • nazo = nose nazumi = to nose around, nose through
  • nomo = name nomumi = to name [to an office]
  • orbito = an orbit orbitumi = to orbit
  • plena = full plenumi = to fulfill
  • polekso = thumb poleksumi = (1) to thumb through , (2) to thumb a ride
  • proksima = close proksimuma = approximate
  • vento = wind ventumi = to fan
  • vintro = winter vintrumi = to spend the winter

One of the most significant uses of -um- is to derive the name of an article of clothing from that of a body part:

  • brako = arm brakumo = arm of a garment
  • kolo = neck kolumo = collar
  • mano = hand manumo = cuff (of sleeve) nazo = nose nazumo = nosebag, nose-cover
  • I think "brakumo" also means a hug; "brakumi" = "to hug, to embrace" – kristan Dec 15 '16 at 23:06
  • @kristan Indeed. I think ‘sleeve’ is an exception to the ‘add um to a body part to mean the part of clothing that covers it’-rule. A sleeve is maniko. – Joffysloffy Dec 16 '16 at 13:01
  • The word "maniko" in Esperanto means "sleeve". "Brakumo" means "a hug". This is an error in Dr. Jordan's list, in my opinion. – Lee Dec 29 '16 at 14:00
4

PMEG lists a lot of UM words, categorized by the five main productive meanings of UM on the one hand and "diverse UM words" on the other hand. It is a more reliable source than the other ones that have been mentioned, but it doesn't have English translations, only explanations in Esperanto.

3

Yes.

Thank goodness for Wikipedia

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.