Before going into my explanation about Esperanto, I would first want to point out that I understand the difference between the three English words "smart", "intelligent" and "wise" in a different way than the way the difference has been presented in the question. (I am not a native speaker of English, but I have lived in the UK for six years, so I believe that I have some competence in judging the meanings of English words; additionally I have checked some online resources that describe the difference between the meaning of the words.) For me, the difference between "smart" and "intelligent" is mainly about more practical vs. more abstract mental skills. The difference between "wise" and the other two is that wisdom is something you acquire through a lot of real life experience, so the adjective "wise" can hardly ever be applied to young people.
In Esperanto, there are only two very commonly used adjectives, "saĝa" and "inteligenta", for expressing the general mental skills expressed by the three English adjectives "smart", "intelligent" and "wise". While "inteligenta" emphasizes more the abstract mental skills needed for scientific thinking, "saĝa" emphasizes more the practical mental skills acquired through life experience. So I would always translate "intelligent" as "inteligenta" and "wise" as "saĝa", but for "smart" the translation depends on the context: Sometimes "saĝa" can be misleading, because it might be misunderstood as "wise", i.e. being able to make good judgements due to a lot of life experience, and sometimes "inteligenta" can be misleading, because it can be misunderstood as "intelligent", i.e. having abstract as opposed to practical mental skills. Which one to choose depends on which of these potential misunderstandings is more likely to happen in the given context. Personally, in case of doubt I generally go for "saĝa" because of its shortness.
Another word with a meaning similar to "smart" is "sprita" (literally "witty" or "clever"). My impression is that it is used much less nowadays than in classical texts, but maybe it should have a bit of a come-back.