I think I understand the (quite easy) basic grammar now... I just need some way to learn the words, but I don't just want to learn them off a list. Some kind of text with each line in English and Esperanto would be perfect, so I learn it while reading... Where do I find some material like this?
Duolingo – Did you know that Duolingo has an Esperanto course? If you’re very busy, you can use this program to learn Esperanto from your smartphone in your downtime.
Lernu – This excellent website has three different Esperanto courses, depending on your learning style. I recommend you start with Ana Pana. The site also has live chat, an active forum, and the best Esperanto dictionary available.
Kurso de Esperanto – free downloadable program that teaches you the grammar of Esperanto from start to finish.
Classic fables are freely available as e-books, leaving the English translation to childhood memories and an occasional dictionary lookup.
Comics have the same advantage of being readable without English translation at hand.
For real conversational language I agree with Oliver Mason in that course material like with lernu.net are best. Such sites also provide some reading material.
Often Esperanto clubs have bilingual periodicals. Dictionary learning also works by that way.
I would recommend Duolingo; this teaches you both words and grammar, translating in both directions.
Each of the exercises of the Fundamento includes a gloss. Although later exercises do expect you to already know the words from earlier exercises.
I personally found these exercises very helpful. Especially because they also demonstrate some nuances that aren’t covered in the grammar rules themselves.
Some time ago I used the website lernu!, Now it looks different but I think it can be helpful.