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In multiple cultures' historical astronomical traditions, a lunar "mansion" referred to a star of a constellation, which the moon passed over in its orbit. In the cultures it occurred in, domestic or architectural metaphor is often used: mansion in English, xiù or lodge in Chinese, burj or tower for the constellations, and manzil or dwelling for the stars in Arabic, etc.

I haven't encountered any Esperanto translation of the term. Should it be calqued as (luna) loĝejo/domo, or translated some other way? Is there any extant Esperanto writing on this that has referred to lunar mansions? What is the best way to refer to them?

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For this astrological associative term "house" is also used. So domo (or loĝejo) should do. It is neither too western specific as you noted, nor would a systematic term (?) or neologism (too small field) be better.

I am not familiar with astrology, so the last check: whether the term conflicts with similar ones. Is there an other notion house/home? Then loĝejo would be better.

There is a difference with mansion/dwelling, though for instance in Italian "casa lunare" is the translation, hence "house" (domo) would fit. hejmo probably is too literally though: home of the stars. vilao or other specialisations of domo might be too misleading.

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