It’s basic grammar that the duplicative aŭ…aŭ, nek…nek, and kaj…kaj forms change a simple “or”, “nor” or “and” into “either…or”, “neither…nor” and “both…and”, respectively. (There are more kombinitaj vortetoj, including ĉu…ĉu, jen…jen, and the non-duplicative ju…des.)
But that section of the PMEG doesn’t, as far as I can tell, address the question of a series of three or more alternates.
In some languages, this construction is productive into arbitrary lists (and can even be mixed, like
*both the first and the second nor the third
either both the first and also the second, or, not the third
which would connote that the first and the second imply the third but the third can also occur independently.)
But in other languages—including English in formal register—it’s not permitted to chain these at all; one must switch from
either the red or the green
one of: the red, the green, or the blue.
My intuition is that Esperanto should allow chaining into nek…nek…nek and so on, but not mixtures like kaj…nek…kaj.
This gut feeling arises from the ju…des case, where one can say ju pli…des pli or ju malpli…des pli or ju pli…des malpli and so on. This is a case that:
- explicitly allows for per-item negation (the first, second, or both can have the mal- following it)
- semantically only allows two items
- and uses two different words rather than the same word twice.
It feels like the fact that these semantics go hand-in-hand with the only case that uses two different introducing conjunctions implicitly suggests that the other cases, with their duplication of introducing conjunctions, should allow for a chain.
So, my question is in three parts:
- Am I right that these chains are allowed?
- If yes to #1, can you mix conjunctions in a chain?
- If yes to #1, can you replace the second through penultimate conjunctions with commas? (e.g., kaj la ruĝa, la verda kaj la blua)