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As you know, "da" cannot be used when expressing amounts of specific things, and is replaced by "de la".

Oni volas glason da vino.
Oni volas glason de la vino.

However, it seems to me that "glaso de la vino" can ambiguously mean either a wine glass for containing a specific wine (like "glaso de vino", but for the [specific] wine, whatever it is), or a glassful of a specific wine (like "glaso da vino", but for the [specific] wine).

I would expect that the usual expected meaning would be the latter, as one usually means to express an amount if one is saying such a thing, but what if I like to be really specific? How would one distinguish between "de la" meaning a type versus "de la" meaning an amount?

I guess "da tiu vino" and "de tiu vino" could be valid disambiguators, but what about the "la" case?

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I hope, that I understood your question correctly.

1. glason da vino

One can think, that the preposition da shows the partitive case, i.e. Mi volas glason da vino : I want (some) wine a quantity, that measures up to a glass, a glass-full of wine.

2. glason da ĉi tiu vino

In the phrase glason da ĉi tiu vino the preposition da still shows the partitive like above, but this time the type of wine is limited to a specific one. In many current learning books this form is marked as erroneous, but there is an example in Exzecaro de la Fundamento for this kind of use. See PMEG.

3. glason de vino

One of the most overloaded words, if not the most one, in Esperanto is the preposition de for which PIV gives 13 different meanings. One of those is to define the first part, i.e. glason de vino is a glass for wine, a wine glass.

4. glason de la vino

Actually I'm not sure what this phrase means other than misinterpreted case 2 above.

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