Sometimes, it is not easy to identify the correct meaning of krom:

Krom Petro, la tuta familio vojaĝis. Ĉu Petro vojaĝis? Did Petro travel?

So it is better to know some alternatives to krom, one for "Except from Petro, the whole family traveled" and one for "In addition to Petro, the whole family traveled".

  • There is a similar question which has an answer which is also appropriate to answer this question. Should we consider this a duplicate? esperanto.stackexchange.com/questions/433/…
    – Neil Roberts
    Sep 13, 2016 at 22:28
  • @NeilRoberts The question itself is different, so it is better to keep it for the sake of future searches. The answer in the question you linked is overcomplete, it answers to more things than the actual question.
    – Vanege
    Sep 13, 2016 at 22:43

2 Answers 2


"Krom" can be used to express an exception as well as an addition. The difference is sometimes difficult to tell without context.

In the case of

Krom Petro la tuta familio vojaĝis.

Peter did not travel (if the context does not tell, that did). One can assume that Peter is member of the family, so it wouldn't make sense to mention Peter as an addition, so he must be the exception.

In the case of

Krom Petro ankaŭ ĉiuj aliaj familianoj vojaĝis.

Peter did travel. In this case "ankaŭ" implies that it is an addition an not an exception.

So to answer your question: You can remove the ambiguity by adding words like "ankaŭ". To make sure that we talk about an exception, you can put it at the end.

La tuta familio vojaĝis, krom Petro.

Other words that you can use instead of "krom":

  • escpete de
  • inkluzive

More on that once more in PMEG.


You can follow the proposal of dictionary Reta Vortaro: krom always means in addition to, except when there is a negative. However, this preposition is flexible enough and not so easy to translate literally, because of that I recommend you to use escepte de when you think the meaning might be confusing.


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.