To aid pronunciation, is there a table converting the letters in Esperanto to SAMPA and to IPA?

3 Answers 3


From https://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prononco_de_Esperanto#Literoj_kaj_fonemoj and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-SAMPA but slightly simplified to leave out the diacritical marks on the vowels.

Esperanto          IFA/IPA          SAMPA
a                  a                a  
b                  b                b
c                  t͡s               ts
ĉ                  t͡ʃ               tS
d                  d                d
e                  e                e
f                  f                f
g                  g                g
ĝ                  d͡ʒ               dZ
h                  h                h
ĥ                  x                x
i                  i                i
j                  j                j
ĵ                  ʒ                Z
k                  k                k
l                  l                l
m                  m                m
n                  n                n
o                  o                o
p                  p                p
r                  r                r 
s                  s                s
ŝ                  ʃ                S
t                  t                t
u                  u                u 
ŭ                  w                w
v                  v                v
z                  z                z
  • I don't think 'ä' is part of the IPA, though it states that on the Wikipedia page. In my view it should just be a simple 'a' in both IPA and SAMPA. Though I guess it depends how precise the transcription should be (phonological or phonetic). I would suggest that we simplify a, e, and o by removing the diacritics, which I believe don't add anything of value. See upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e4/… for details. Sep 15, 2016 at 15:58
  • The Wikipedia page you link includes the diacritical marks. I can remove the diacritics but it would to have a reference.
    – conor
    Sep 15, 2016 at 18:38
  • " While the International Phonetic Alphabet officially has no dedicated letter for this sound between front [a] and back [ɑ], it is normally written ⟨a⟩. If precision is required, it can be specified by using diacritics, such as centralized ⟨ä⟩ or retracted ⟨a̠⟩, but this is not common." (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_central_unrounded_vowel) Sep 15, 2016 at 18:50
  • "The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ], it is normally written ⟨o⟩. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨o̞⟩ or ⟨ɔ̝⟩, the former being more common. A non-IPA letter ⟨ⱺ⟩ is also found." (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mid_back_rounded_vowel) Sep 15, 2016 at 18:51
  • I would argue that this precision is going too far on here. It's a broad phonemic transcription, and not a fine-grained close phonetic one. I suspect that the actual pronunciations vary according to the speakers' native languages anyway. Sep 15, 2016 at 18:53

You can find such tables (for IPA) on the Esperanto Wikipedia: here and here.

Note: IFA = Internacia fonetika alfabeto = IPA in English.


Not to my knowledge for SAMPA. Tables of SAMPA transcriptions exist for several languages, and one for Esperanto should be easy to construct. An example for English is here: http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/english.htm

The main page for SAMPA is at http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/index.html

An IPA table can be found at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_Esperanto, but it has English equivalents.

  • This explains to an English speaker how to pronounce different SAMPA symbols, is there also a table converting Esperanto orthography into these symbols?
    – conor
    Sep 15, 2016 at 13:54
  • No, there isn't. You'd have to go via the IPA_for_Esperanto link to get the IPA, and then convert that into SAMPA from the main page listed. It should be trivial to do. Sep 15, 2016 at 13:55
  • I agree, I will do one tonight.
    – conor
    Sep 15, 2016 at 13:57

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.