Questions tagged [affixes]

For all questions about the use and meaning of affixes, i.e. prefixes and suffixes.

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what does -at- suffix do

in dictionary of lenru, the "amato" word(which means beloved), is built by am + at + o. I searched in suffixes of esperanto, but I didn't find anything about -at- suffix. so what does it do?
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How and why did the different Esperanto affixes get choosen?

I really like Esperanto's system of prefixes and suffixes, being able to add all of them together to get the perfect word without needed to know specific vocabulary, but I don't exactly understand how ...
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Questions about "farigxi"

I do not understand this verb. It's parts, far and igx, would make me think that it means "get made" as in The cookies were made in 20 minutes / La kuketoj farigxis dum 20 minutoj However, ...
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Questions about -ig- and indirect and direct objects

I am sort of confused about la suffix -ig-, and how it would be used in translating this sentence: For example, let's say there is a political advisor, and they go to a candidate and say "I will ...
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Double pejorative

Can one say, for example, "la najbarido fuŝkantaĉis la tutan vesperon" or "Dio, iu pagas por lia fuŝbildaĉoj" to show their unbelievable, overwhelming annoyance? Also, is fuŝ- an ...
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Difference between morpheme and prefix for prepositions

I was looking the pages of the prepositions in the PIV, like el, tra or kun, and a question came to my mind. How the difference is made between morphemes and prefixes? My hypothesis is that if there ...
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Ĉu la provinconomo "Asturio" estas landobaza aŭ gentobaza?

Ĉu la provinconomo "Asturio" estas landobaza aŭ gentobaza? Landobaza: Provinco: Asturi·o Loĝanto: asturi·an·o Lingvo: la asturi·a Gentobaza: Provinco: Astur·i·o / Astur·uj·o Loĝanto: ...
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Alternativoj por baldegaŭ kaj baldetaŭ

Mi sufiĉe ofte aŭdas la vortojn baldetaŭ kaj baldegaŭ en la neformala lingvo. Ili kompreneble estas kreitaj el la vorto baldaŭ. Estas multe da vortoj kiuj finiĝas per -aŭ kaj tio kreas la impreson ke ...
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To bump into something

What is the usual pattern for expressing bumping into something? From what I can tell, to walk into something is "promeni en ion", to fly into something is "flugi en ion", and so on. What about "to ...
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Can affixes appear in roots?

From what I've seen so far, roots never end in a suffix or start with a prefix. I've reasoned that it should be that way: If roots contained affixes, it would be confusing and give the impression ...
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What is ”size” in Esperanto?

I can tell the difference betweeen a quantity and the presence of a quality. rapido - speed / rapideco - quickness longo - length / longeco - longness pezo - weight / pezeco - heaviness I thought ...
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What is the purpose of the -aĵ- suffix?

I've been learning Esperanto on my own, and recently found the -aĵ- suffix. As far as my understanding goes, this is used to get the concrete/physical/real version of a concept. For example, havaĵo, ...
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"Stresiĝi" kontraŭ "Ek-stresi"

Ni scias, ke la afikxoj -iĝ kaj ek- havas diferencajn signifojn. Tamen, laŭ PIV, ekstresi kaj stresiĝi estas prefekte samaj signife: stresiĝi: Ekesti en stato de streso. (ligilo) Ĉu tio ĝustas? ...
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Ĉu la pasiva formo "esti x[iao]ta" maloftiĝas favore al la uzado de -iĝ-?

Ĉu Esperantistoj pli kaj pli ofte uzas la sufikson -iĝ- anstataŭ la pasivan formon esti x[iao]ta? Mi havas la impreson ke jes. Mi vidas ofte prononciĝas kaj tradukiĝas, anstataŭ estas prononcata kaj ...
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Prefixes vs Suffixes: Which one is strongest?

Sometimes a prefix and a suffix collide to form a word. An example is malino (mal- + -ino) which is sometimes used in informal language to mean ”a man”. However, I’ve often wondered: Which ’fix gets ...
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6 votes
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If a word is a plural object, which suffix comes first?

If I have "mi legas libronj" (I read books), does -n or -j come first? Does it matter? Is there a standard? What about other suffixes? (I've only learned objects and plurals so far but assume there ...
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9 votes
6 answers
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Are people misusing the ek- verbs?

Very often I see the ek- being used as a complete synonym of "start doing something". But it feels wrong. PIV defines this prefix as Pref. signifanta, ke la procezo komenciĝas subite, je preciza ...
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15 votes
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When is the prefix ne- and when is it mal-?

The meanings of adjectives can be altered by adding a prefix. Most people know that mal- makes opposites, but the meaning of ne- is a bit more vague. How should I know when to use ne- instead of mal-? ...
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What's the difference between the words "aĵo" and "esto" and "estaĵo"

They all seem to be defined as "being", "entity", or "thing", though "estaĵo" also seems to be "creature." Where does this nuance come from? Why do each of these words exist, and how can I use each to ...
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2 answers
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Which if any esperanto words are not viable as affixes for constructing new words?

For example it seems to me that la probably isn't viable. Is this really the case?
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When should I use "vesto"?

I'm used to seeing vestaĵoj, not vestoj. Although, in the new Lernu-course La Teorio Nakamura, vestoj appears several times, for example: "Sed vi ne povas iri tra la stratoj en tiel malmodernaj ...
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Can I duplicate an affix for exaggerated effect?

Like in Esperanto, in many Slavic languages one can stack affixes on top of each other, even those of the same meaning. The latter often ends up sounding awkward or exaggerated, but that may be the ...
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Creating new verbs with -um and nouns

Some of my friends connect -umi to nouns like in the examples below. In brackets are the meanings I caught through context. varsoviumi (talk about Varsovio, look at pictures of the city and/or walk ...
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What are some example-words to show how well affixes work?

I've seen malsanulejo in many places; a good example for how logically roots and affixes can be combined to make useful words. Malsanulejo has a clear meaning, and can easily be translated into ...
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3 answers
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What would be the meaning of "adi"?

PMEG does not provide a theorical meaning for adi. What would be the most probable meaning of adi based on how other affixes are transformed into verbs?
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6 votes
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Using -njo and -ĉjo for family members

I have seen "panjo" very often, and "paĉjo" a couple of times. Are "franjo" and "fraĉjo" common too? What about grandparents? I'm having trouble combining "avo" and -ĉjo. I'm thinking filo would make ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Is there a difference between "-iĝigi" kaj "-igi"?

For example, is the meaning of Mi kuraĝiĝigas lin. different from Mi kuraĝigas lin. ?
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What is the interaction between "-iĝi", "-igi", "-anta" and "-ata"?

Is it possible to construct Esperanto words ending with -iĝata, -iĝanta, -iganta, and -igata? For example, could I build humiligata, humiliĝata, humiliĝanta, and humiliganta from humila (humiliating)? ...
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3 votes
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Is the "ge-" prefix in "gefratoj" necessary?

I was trying to translate the name of the game Smash Brothers into Esperanto. The best name I could find is Frakas-Gefratoj, but the ge- prefix feels clunky. I am wondering if I could remove it in ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Can the suffix -iĝ- be added to any noun?

How free are we to add the suffix -iĝ- to a word when we want to give the idea that we or someone or something is becoming the thing that the word concerns? I'm not sure how else to ask the question. ...
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12 votes
2 answers
960 views

What is the usefulness of the 'um' suffix?

I've been told multiple times that it has no definite meaning and also that in general it is used with more abstract actions and ideas. Why was this suffix created, and is there any way to assimilate ...
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6 votes
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Is the word "laboristo" irregular?

I have noticed the suffix "ant" which (I guess) is parallel to the English "er" suffix: Paroli - to speak Parolanto - speaker Ludi - to play Ludanto - player manĝi - to eat ...
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8 votes
3 answers
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What's the difference between -ujo and -io in country names?

When I first learned Esperanto, I learned that country names usually take the suffix -ujo to convert from a culture to its respective country (e.g. Anglujo, Francujo, Germanujo). But after using the ...
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9 votes
2 answers
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Why does "glaciaĵo" mean "ice cream"?

Given the meaning of the suffix "-aĵ", that is, "a concrete thing", and the examples usually associated with it, like (random ones from PMEG): utila → utilaĵo = (konkreta) afero, kiu estas utila ...
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18 votes
3 answers
545 views

What is the difference between the affixes fi- and -aĉ?

I've understood that both the prefix fi- and the suffix -aĉ means something bad. What are the differences of these two? Are there differences in how they are defined? In how they are used?
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9 votes
1 answer
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How do I know when a verb is transitive?

With verbs without the -ig- or -iĝ- infix, how do I know they are transitive? For example, boli doesn't explicitly say it does not take an object, and you need to know its counterpart (boligi) in ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Is it possible to mix feminine suffix (in) and offspring suffix (id)?

Well, let's start with an example. A dog - Hundo. A puppy (The offset of a dog) - Hundido. A dog female - Hundino. Now, can "puppy female" be written like Hundidino or Hundinido? (mixing ...
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