Questions tagged [prepositions]

For questions concerning the usage of prepositions in Esperanto.

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23 views

Difference between morpheme and prefix for prepositions

I was looking the pages of the prepositions in the PIV, like el, tra or kun, and a question came to my mind. How the difference is made between morphemes and prefixes? My hypothesis is that if there ...
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49 views

Vortordo - kvantadverbo ne rekte apud «da»

Ĉiuj komprenus tiun frazon. Mi havas multe da X. Sed ĉu ankaŭ tiu havus sencon? Mi multe havas da X. Kaj ĉu ankaŭ ambaŭ el tiuj ĝustas? Ĉu da X? Mi havas multe. Ĉu da X? Mi multe havas. La ...
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2answers
44 views

Confusions about “kiel”

I noticed that kiel in Esperanto can mean both "as" and "like", so there may be confusions about the meanings of the word. Kiel la administranto de la korporacio, mi pensas, ke li ...
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2answers
57 views

«Kuiri ĝis mola» kaj «bati ĝis morta»?

Ĉu oni povas traduki tiujn anglajn frazojn: Cook until soft. Hit until dead. Kiel: Kuiri ĝis mola. Bati ĝis morta. La PoMEGo tian uzon ne mencias, sed eble ĝustas tamen? (Mi komprenas, ke oni ...
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4answers
77 views

Kiel esprimi moviĝon de unu flanko de objekto, kiu troviĝas super vi, al la alia flanko?

Mi serĉas esprimon por la jena tipo de transa moviĝo. Estas du aŭtovojoj: unu pasas per ponto super la alia. Vi veturas sur la malpli alta vojo. Kiam vi preterpasas la ponton, vi unue iras sub ĝin kaj ...
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2answers
27 views

Dua objekto rekta post «kompare al» kaj simile

Post vortoj, kiel «anstataŭ» kaj «ol», substantivo povas esti akuzativigita se ĝi estas dua/alia objekto rekta (mi ne konas la nomon realan). Ekzemple... Mi volas tiun anstataŭ tiun! Mi volus tiun ...
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231 views

Kial ne ekzistas “post ol <verbo>”?

Jen estas paĝo de PMEG. Ĉe la parto pri "aliaj rolvortetoj", estas dirite, ke oni povas diri "antaŭ ol <i-verbo>", sed ial ne "post ol <i-verbo>". Speciale ...
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45 views

<prepozicio>e de io

Jen kelke da frazoj sufiĉe simplaj. Li venas al la butiko. La monado estis ĵetita el la fenestro kaj falis sur la grundon. La unua umo staras post la dua umo. Antaŭ ri ruliĝas monado tre granda. Mi ...
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37 views

Mood of subordinate clause after “sen”/“per”

Jen the following example sentences. Mi povas venki la <kion ajn>, sen tio, ke vi min {helpas,helpus,helpu}! Mi povas venki la <kion ajn>, per[e de] tio, ke vi min {helpas,helpus,helpu}! ...
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37 views

When multiple objects could be the direct one, may I choose none and use prepositions for all?

With some transitive Esperanto verbs, one can choose between two or more object roles to take the position of the direct object (accusative object). (A Q&A of the Konsultejo mentions demandi and ...
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1answer
33 views

«antaŭ tio, ke» anstataŭ «antaŭ ol»

Is it grammatically valid to say «antaŭ tio, ke» in place of «antaŭ ol»? For example, instead of this. La monado ŝtelis mian kukon antaŭ ol mi povis rimarki [tion]. Could one say this instead, ...
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3answers
52 views

“Too big for X to eat”

I once translated the sentence Is a duck too big for a monad to eat? to Ĉu anaso estas tro granda por monado manĝi? According to an expert friend, it seems that this is incorrect. My next ...
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2answers
130 views

How to translate “Centuries before World War I, soldiers often used swords and scabbards.” grammatically correctly?

Duolingo translates Centuries ago, soldiers often used swords and scabbards. as Antaŭ jarcentoj, soldatoj ofte uzis glavojn kaj glavingojn. Inspired by the question, whether "Jarcentoj antaŭ, ...
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2answers
48 views

Why accusative in duration before “antaŭ”?

Why does "monatojn" carry the accusative marker "-n" in the following sentence? Ĉiu diskutota demando estas ja publikigita tri monatojn antaŭ la kongreso. (Seen in PMEG, which in turn attributes ...
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1answer
28 views

“I have nothing about which to think”

If sentences like I have something to eat. are translated as Mi havas ion por manĝi. as it would be in French, then what about sentences like I have something about which to think. I have ...
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2answers
202 views

Expressing vague rates

Normally, "po" is used to express frequency or rates. For example, "Mi manĝas po unu durianon ĉiutage" (or "Mi manĝas ĉiutage po unu durianon"). But then what if the "rate" is not very specific? For ...
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2answers
57 views

“da”, “el”, or nothing?

Suppose I want to say something like "all/each/some/many of something". Which preposition should be used to represent the "of" here? "Da", "el", or nothing? Secondly, what preceding preposition should ...
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102 views

Why did “kiom”, “tiom”, “iom” etc. without “da” fall out of fashion?

Nowadays, when an amount tabelvorto ("kiom", "tiom", "iom", "ĉiom" or "neniom") is followed by the thing(s) or category to which the amount refers, there's always a "da" between them. (See also Why is ...
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2answers
40 views

To bump into something

What is the usual pattern for expressing bumping into something? From what I can tell, to walk into something is "promeni en ion", to fly into something is "flugi en ion", and so on. What about "to ...
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170 views

How do you say “as old as you are”? How to know when to use the correct as?

I am a bit confused about which "as" to use in this sentence: "as old as you are" my attempt: "kiel maljuna lau estas vi" I'd also like to know when you use each translation for the word as.
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52 views

Omission of prepositions with movement verbs

The image below is a section from A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (Ivy Kellerman, 1910), outlining the use of accusatives with verbs expressing motion. I've marked the relevant parts in red. To my ...
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42 views

Can a prepositional phrase act as the direct object?

I'm new to Esperanto and starting to use transitive verbs. The book I'm using, A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (Ivy Kellerman, 1910), states that "a transitive verb expresses an act of the subject ...
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6answers
174 views

How to mark accusative for correlatives of quantity? Kiel marki akuzativon ĉe “…iom”-aj tabelvortoj?

If I'm not mistaken, the two distinct English questions (a) How many workers need that much work? and (b) How many workers does that much work need? would in Esperanto both be rendered as Kiom da ...
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1answer
73 views

traduko: Die Mutter wäscht dem Kind die Haare

Is one of the two following sentences good Esperanto? La patrino lavas al la infano la harojn. La patrino lavas la harojn al la infano. Note that I am not keen on the word order here, but my main ...
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1answer
82 views

What is the difference between “ĝis” and “al?”

I understand that ĝis means "up to", or "as far as", and al means "to", but when must one change between the two? Take Duolingo's example: Mi vojaĝas tra Germanio ĝis Pollando. Why would one use ...
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1answer
48 views

Kien meti prepozicion en frazo kun “unu la alia”?

Kie tauĝas la prepozicio kiam "unu la alia" estas nerekta objekto de frazo? Ekzemple, kiu el ĉi tiuj frazoj estas ĝusta? Ili sendis donacojn unu al la alia. Ili sendis donacojn al unu la alia.
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275 views

what are the appropriate date and time prepositions

In English you can meet at a time (We will meet at 4pm.) on a date (We will meet on the 4th.) or be on time. Esperanto doesn't seem to have quite the same rules. Is it en a date and je a time? What ...
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3answers
101 views

Is there a preposition for “composed of”?

I'm writing a story where there's a federation of minor planets that uses Esperanto as its official language. I'm trying to call them something like "the federation of minor planets", because I'm not ...
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92 views

How to translate the expression “in which”?

By in which I mean the saying to connect two sentences I destroyed the house in which I was born How should it be translated?
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116 views

“Sen rigardi”: Which preposition+infinitive combos are possible?

I often encounter prepositional phrases such as sen rigardi: Mi forlasis ŝin sen rigardi dorsen. (From a story by J. Camacho.) Are other preposition+infinitive combinations possible? For example: ...
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2answers
809 views

What is “upside down” and “inside out” in Esperanto?

How can I say "upside down" and "inside out"? I find it difficult to translate them – I don't know which grammar constriction I should use. Most often the expressions describes a state, right? ...
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5answers
118 views

Playing with => ludi je?

This came up on Duolingo a while back and I'd like to get the community's consensus. The phrase they give for We are playing cards is Ni ludas je kartoj. So would je be appropriate when you are ...
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2answers
302 views

Are prepositions with “ke” valid? (“pri ke”, “pro ke”, “por ke”, …)

To introduce a causal secondary sentence, I often saw pro tio, ke and ĉar. Recently, I saw pro ke, without any tio to which I think ke is supposed to refer to. Mi ne povas dormi pro ke tro ...
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1answer
257 views

Are there prepositions that cannot be replaced by “je”?

I have often heard that you can use je when doubting which preposition to use. Is this always the case?
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258 views

How many prepositions in a row are possible in Esperanto?

Sometimes I see two prepositions together in Esperanto (something I don’t know from other languages). A couple of examples taken from PMEG: Kien ajn la luno povis lumi tra inter la arboj, li vidis ...
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60 views

Ĉu estas ĝuste diri «ĝis» por signifi «iam antaŭ»?

Mi ofte aŭdas «ĝis» por signifi ke io okazos antaŭ iu specifa dato. Ekzemple, imagu la jenan situacion: Ĉefo: Ĉu vi finis la raporton? Dungito: Ne, sed mi donos ĝin al vi ĝis vendredo. En tiu okazo «...
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Do you know an eloquent presentation of the differences between the miscellaneous locative prepositions?

To my mind, some locative prepositions make distinctions that are rather subtle, and I'm not sure I understand them well. So I'm looking for concrete examples where an explanation of the difference in ...
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1answer
105 views

Can I in principle replace any preposition by -n?

I wanted to ask for clarification in this matter for a long time. I think I read somewhere that any preposition can be replaced by -n, but I can't find that source again. What I can find, however, is ...
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1answer
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Kiom ofta estas la uzo de “en” kun temposubstantivoj?

Mi pli ofte vidis tempoesprimojn en adverba formo aŭ enhavantajn dum ol enhavantajn en. Ekzemple ĉirkaŭ la radikoj tag, nokt, semajn, semajnfin, monat, jar. De lernu.net: En la tago ni vidas la ...
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2answers
52 views

Objective use of “de”

Can "de" be used in the same way as an objective use of "of" - that is, in an example, "the fear of death," where "fear" is the noun form of a verb that would normally act upon "death." Would we ...
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2answers
165 views

Ĉu oni estas “en” aŭ “sur” foto?

Mi volus diri "sur foto" sed aliulo pensus ke tio signifus ke vi fizike staras sur printita foto. Tiu do dirus "en la foto" por priskribi la fotitojn. Ĉu estas regulo en Esperanto aŭ ĉu oni simple ...
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2answers
190 views

What is the difference between temporal “en” and “dum”?

It seems that I slept during the holiday can be translated into two ways: Mi dormis en la festotago. Mi dormis dum la festotago. Do they both mean the same?
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231 views

Is it “Mi lernas kun Duolingo” or “Mi lernas per Duolingo”?

The prepositions kun and per can both be translated in English with with. In this case, which one should I use?
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5answers
177 views

Can you say “sur la reto” for something you found in the Internet?

Is Mi trovis ion sur la reto a valid way to say that you found something in the Internet? Should prepositions such as en and per be prefered?
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562 views

What is the difference between “al la domo” and “en la domon”?

Both express an idea of movement (the first one with the preposition al, and the second with the -n for direction.) Do they mean the same thing, and is it always the case?
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1answer
188 views

Is “dum” missing in the sentence “Mi atendis pli ol horo”?

One can say "Mi atendis horon", where horo has the accusative mark as an indication of a time-length. However, we usually don't use the accusative after ol. Can we directly transform the sentence into ...
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1answer
107 views

Can “ĉi” be used as a postposition?

One can say "ĉi tiel", or "tiel ĉi". It's also common to use "ĉi" on its own, mentioned in this PMEG page and also on the PIV entry for "ĉi". An example of this appearing on both pages is "ĉi ne ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the difference between “per”, “por”, “pri” and “pro”?

What is the difference between per, por, pri, and pro? All these words look and feel sort of similar to me. What are the possible uses for each of them? How do I decide which to use?
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1answer
84 views

How do I translate “The state of California”?

If I want to translate a phrase like the state of California, how would I translate it? It feels like a literal translation of it with de would be impractical.
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94 views

Is there a difference between “Mi havas tekston por korekti” and “Mi havas tekston por esti korekt(a/i)ta”?

I have a text to correct seems to be often translated into Mi havas tekston por korekti by English Esperanto speakers. I find the translation weird and confusing since a correction is not a goal of ...