14

The meaning of ne is not really vague: It is just negation. You can use either to express what you mean, but in some cases the opposite and negation coincide: For instance with vera; nevera and malvera are the same, because anything that is ‘not true’ is ‘false’. In these cases I think mal might be preferred. (In this case I found only 2 instances of \bnever[...


12

There are other languages like this too, such as Latino, Tokipono etc. The difference comes from the fact that the names of most languages are derived from root words which have a different meaning, such as a group of people. For example la hispana is short for la hispana lingvo and it effectively means the language of the Spanish people. Esperanto is ...


12

Esperanto is an international language already in use, so the correct way is not to look only at the English form of the term, but to: first check whether a suitable Esperanto term is already in use for the intended meaning (and whether makes sense sufficiently and/or has become idiomatic due to very regular use). For this, consult both dictionaries, ...


11

La vorto nura esprimas nesufiĉecon; la vorto sola esprimas foreston de kunuloj. Li ne estas viro. Eĉ kun nia helpo, la tasko estos malfacila por nura knabo. Li staras ekster la lernejo sen aliaj infanoj. Li estas sola knabo. Rimarku la diferencon inter sola kaj sole: Mi spektas sola. (Mi spektas sen kunspektantoj.) Mi spektas sole. (Mi spektas sed faras ...


11

The bele here is actually describing the entire sub-phrase (ie, ke vi alvenis), not the word estis. When you are using a word to describe a sub-phrase you should use the -e ending instead of -a. The same applies to describing an infinitive (verb ending in -i) because these are understood like a sub-phrase. This is different from English which uses an ...


11

The -o correlatives are noun-like and although they don't take a plural, they are described by adjectives, not adverbs. Therefore, in every case that you listed, you would need an adjective. Tio estas vera. Ĉio estas mirinda en nia mondo. Io ne estas ĝusta pri ĝi. Your last two examples could be adverbs depending on what you mean. Io stranga okazis - ...


11

sana is the state of a person: Li estas denove sana kaj do povas reveni al la laboro - Ĝenerale mi estas sana persono saniga ("making healthy") is the quality of something that leads to health: La medikamento estas saniga - La ferioj estis kvazaŭ sanigaj por mi, mi regajnis energion Traditionally, both sana and saniga can also mean "furthering, supporting ...


11

”upside down” could be translated as renversita. PIV gives some examples, such as: li renversis la vinbotelon, por ĝui ĝis la lasta guto ”he turned the wine bottle upside-down in order to enjoy even the last drop”. I’m not sure about ”inside out”, though. I guess it could be reversita – PIV mentions ”reversi” in the context of re-sewing clothes with the ...


10

plaĉa - something that is pleasing, pleasant agrabla - good, nice, pleasant ĉarma - charming, nice


9

To your list of prefixes, you could add sen-. If something has a clear opposite, then it's mal- (e.g. malvera, malsimila, malsama). If it's something that is either there or not, then it's -ne (e.g. nenecesa). If the quality is lacking, then it's sen- (e.g. senutila). Most of the words you listed can go more than one way. For example: neinteresa ...


9

As mentioned in Lyubomir’s answer, presumably the reason is just because that’s how it’s done in many other languages. However I’d add to that that the adjective doesn’t always match the noun, it matches the thing it’s describing which can be more than the following noun. In some cases this can resolve some ambiguity which can’t be done in English. For ...


8

I think the system would basically be the same as in English except that you would need to add a -a at the end to make sure it is an adjective if the last word isn’t already adjectival. The hyphens would be optional unless it would make the meaning unclear because Esperanto naturally combines words like this anyway. Here are some example usages: From Monato:...


8

You use the nominative case here: Ĉu vi konsideras vin feliĉa? Here feliĉa is a predicative, which is always expressed using the nominative case in Esperanto. There are more examples of this in PMEG: Perverba priskribo de la subjekto, Perverba priskribo de la objekto. On the Esperanto Wikipedia page predikativo is also an example with the word konsideri: “...


8

I have trouble with this too, not because of confusion over what part of speech to use, but because Esperanto seems to have a few words with similar meanings - and it seems to divide the semantic space differently from how English does. Inversa means to be in the opposite position or direction. Renversita means turned upside-down or knocked over. La fundon ...


7

En la patrina koro means in the motherly heart. The heart has a motherly quality. However, we don't know who owns the heart. Even though I am a man, I could have a motherly heart. En la koro de patrino means in the heart of a mother. La koro de la ŝtono batas (source: splicedwire.com) La ŝtona koro ne batas


7

Adjectives agree with nouns in case and number (that is, they share the -j and-n endings) because the rules of Esperanto require it. Not making your nouns and adjectives agree would mark a speaker as a beginner and call attention away from what they're saying and onto how they are saying it. Many of the languages that Zamenhof (the first author of Esperanto) ...


7

I explain it this way. The suffix -eg- is for making the next category of thing - bigger or more intense. So domego is not just a big house, but it's a mansion. Kuregi doesn't mean simply to run fast, but to sprint all out. Generally, if you're sprinting all out, you're moving at your personal fastest, but this doesn't mean that kuregi actually means "...


7

When I encountered this use of ”adjectivized” nouns I also found it a little bit strange. If you keep in mind that adding an -a to a noun root means ”related to...” I believe you will get the hang of it. To me there are three levels of describing a noun using a different noun, the first one being the strongest, most specific bond and the last being the ...


6

Adjectives describe nouns; that's basically all they do. So if there isn't a noun or pronoun to modify, you use the adverb form. Mi estas freneza; freneza describes mi Kia freneza virino mi estas!; freneza describes virino Mi parolas freneze; freneze describes the verb parolas, not a noun or pronoun Estas freneze, ke mi parolis tiel al li; freneze describes ...


6

Keep in mind that bonvena is simply an adjective, which describes the noun it affects. Vortaro has this example: EO: Ĝi estas al li tre bonvena EN: It's very welcome to him In this case, it is the pronoun ĝi ('it') that is welcome, and it is welcome in the eyes of li ('him'). It shows another example: EO: Estu ĉe mi bonvena gasto! EN: Be with me a welcome ...


6

La dua estas la ĝusta versio. La vortoj pli kaj plej ludas la rolon de prefikso nur kiam oni bezonas unuopan vorton por unuopa koncepto. Ekzemple, ekzistas diferenco inter pli bonigi kaj plibonigi. Por transformi plej amata homo en unu vorton, oni skribas plejamato. Simile, plej sankta ejo fariĝas plejsanktejo. En via ekzemplo, la vortoj plej grava ne ...


6

Kial ne? Vere, kial ne? Mi supozas, ke tiun decidon faris Zamenhof kaj mi ne scias ĉu li respondis al ĝi en iu de liaj lingvaj respondoj, sed se mi devus supozi, mi dirus, ke unu el la kialoj estus tio, ke multe da lingcoj faras tion: Slavaj lingvoj faras tion; Latinidaj lingvoj faras tion; La germana lingvo faras tion (mi ne scias ĉu la aliaj ĝermanaj ...


6

Oni diras ambaŭ. Alta kvalito = bona kvalito. Ankaŭ eblas diri ke io havas bonajn kvalitojn. "Altkvalita" kaj "bonkvalita" estas oftaj esprimoj.


6

This is a sentence from Tekstaro that may be useful to answer your question (emphasis are mine): Tuj mi seniĝis de la vestoj, saltis en la akvon kaj naĝis for. Sed estis pli malvarme ol mi atendis, kaj mi ne restis longe en la lago. Translation: Immediately I got rid of the clothes, jumped into the water and swim away. But it was colder than I (had) ...


6

La ekzemplo ne estas eraro, nur la klarigo estas iomete nekompleta. Ja veras, ke adjektivoj rilatas al substantivoj (kaj substantivecaĵoj: pronomoj, citaĵoj, rilataj subfrazoj), sed ankaŭ adverbo povas priskribi substantivon. La decidiga distingo estas, kiun rolon plenumas la priskriba vorto. Tiun rolon oni povas videbligi demandante pri la koncerna vorto: ...


6

"nun" and "ĉi tiam" are very different nun is for referencing the present time. tiam is for referencing a particuliar moment, that can be the present time, but not always. ĉi can indicate proximity in time, but also in context (where you put the focus in one particuliar time out of several that were mentionned). Even when "ĉi" is used for time proximity, ...


6

"Pli malgranda" estas la supereca komparativo de "malgranda". "Malpli granda" estas la malsupereca komparativo de "granda". Vidu vortaro.net La diferenco estas la sama en la angla. "Smaller" - "not as big / less big". "Pli malgranda" is the positive comparative of "malgranda". "Malpli granda" is the negative comparative of "granda". See vortaro.net The ...


6

I would say here La grupo timas or La grupanoj timas and not even use an adjective. Note here that with -an- you still have a very similar effect without using membroj de.


5

I have never heard of such a rule, I haven't found anything about it in PMEG and I can't remember hearing an adjective order that sounded weird to me. Use what feels natural to you.


5

In general the adverb (-e) modifies the verb, so the sentence could be translated My uncle comes in a healthy way (eg walks without a limp). The adjective (-a) modifies the noun, so My uncle comes (and is) healthy. It is a bit of a strange sentence without any further context, though.


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