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19

Unfortunately one has to memorize this. But it is not as hard as it seems. You already have to memorize the precise meaning of a verb and transitivity or intransitivity is part of its meaning. The trouble is when a verb in another language (such as English) is both transitive and intransitive and is given as a translation in the dictionary. "boli" is an ...


18

PMEG explains that fi is not a "real" affix, while aĉ is. Then it goes on and says, talking about the difference between them: Prefikseca fi kaj la sufikso AĈ estas similaj. Fi estas pli subjektiva. Ĝi esprimas indignon kaj malŝaton. AĈ estas pli objektiva. Ĝi montras maltaŭgecon kaj malbonan kvaliton. En la frua tempo, antaŭ ol AĈ aperis en la lingvo, ...


17

Yes you can. This can be done with all suffixes, with how many suffixes you want. But keep things reasonable. Only add a suffix when it adds a valuable information. By the way, remember to read them from left to right, so even if you can "mix" the place of -id- and -in-, the results do not mean the same. Hund-id-in-o means a female puppy Hund-in-id-o means ...


14

As explained in PMEG, -aĵ- is often used to form words for prepared foods. The word glaciaĵo falls into this category. I always found it very logical, once one knows that -aĵ- can have the special meaning of a prepared food. Ice cream is a prepared food that is technically a kind of ice. The fact that many other languages have a word related to ice for ice ...


14

Zamenhof created the Esperanto affixes so as to reduce the burden of learning vocabulary: It is easier to memorize a word that is formed through an affix based on an already known word than to memorize a completely new word root. Zamenhof originally came up with 36 affixes that correspond to 36 different ways in which the meanings of two words can be ...


14

The meaning of ne is not really vague: It is just negation. You can use either to express what you mean, but in some cases the opposite and negation coincide: For instance with vera; nevera and malvera are the same, because anything that is ‘not true’ is ‘false’. In these cases I think mal might be preferred. (In this case I found only 2 instances of \bnever[...


13

-ant- means that someone is doing something -ist- means that someone is doing something regularly professionally or at least in a very skillful way with lots of experience. So: Paroli - to speak Parolanto - a speaking one Ludi - to play Ludanto - a playing one Ludisto - a professional or at least especially skilled regular player manĝi - to eat manĝanto - ...


11

Given that the original game is named “Smash Brothers” and not “Smash Siblings”, regardless of context, I would say that you could very well remove the ge- prefix.


11

These are actually not suffixes, but endings. The plural ending -j is always written before the accustaive -n. Other endings are -o (for nouns) -a (for adjectives), -e (for adverbs) and the verb-endings. I don't think you'll be confused by them. Later when you learn the suffixes, (-et, -eg, -in, -id are some of the first you learn) you'll see that they ...


10

There is no difference in meaning betweeen -ujo ans -io in country names that are derived from a demonym (a word referring to a person's nationality). Zamenhof used -ujo, whereas -io was introduced by Hector Hodler (the founder of UEA) in 1918. In 1922 the Lingva Komitato (the predecessor of Akademio de Esperanto) advised against the usage of -io, but as ...


10

Put simply, "-aĉ-" is the one that means "Bad, of poor quality", whereas "fi-" actually means "Immorral/corrupt". For example, A "Fiprezidento" would be a corrupt president, say taking bribes from Human Rights abusers. And a "prezidentaĉo" would be an otherwise nice person that just doesn't know how to do the job.


10

I had an interesting conversation with Bertilo Wennergren about reduplication in Esperanto. He and I have a different view of things. I am convinced that reduplication happens in Esperanto. His position is that every example that is called "reduplication" is actually just normal Esperanto word building. Your example bebeteto is a good one to illustrate ...


10

For better or worse, eklerni is a well-established expression. Personally, I've never had a problem with the logic of it. Ek- doesn't always imply suddenness - as with the examples you gave. One reason to prefer eklerni over komenci lerni is to save syllables. There's also the fact that when you eklernas Esperanton you are still very much a komencanto (and ...


9

Any word is viable as part of a compound. The only limitation is whether it makes sense. Even "la" could be used in a compound if it makes sense to do so. As a contrived example: senlaa frazo.


9

To your list of prefixes, you could add sen-. If something has a clear opposite, then it's mal- (e.g. malvera, malsimila, malsama). If it's something that is either there or not, then it's -ne (e.g. nenecesa). If the quality is lacking, then it's sen- (e.g. senutila). Most of the words you listed can go more than one way. For example: neinteresa ...


9

Someone said to me years ago that language is not math. That is, when trying to express something in Esperanto, so-called "logic" can only take us so far. Eventually we have to use common sense, tradition, and the principle of neceso kaj sufiĉo. That is, there may not be an answer to these questions. It's true, however, that there are differences between ...


8

In general, the root of a word falls into one of three categories. What happens when you add iĝ depends on the category of the root: Verb/Action roots: adding iĝ turns a transitive verb into an intransitive verb, e.g. fermi -> fermiĝi/fermiĝo Adjective/Quality roots: adding iĝ creates the meaning "to become~", e.g. granda -> grandiĝi/grandiĝo Noun/Object ...


8

Pri la ĝenerala demando ĉu oni devas meti la ge- kiam temas pri kaj fratoj kaj fratinoj mi dirus ke jes, oni ja bezonas tion. La vorto frato strikte temas pri viroj, kaj uzi fratoj por priskribi grupon kiu enhavas virinojn similus al nomi ilin viroj - tio certe tre ofende ignorus unu parton de la grupo. Tamen en ĉi tiu okazo nek la originala titolo havas ...


8

From Plena Ilustrita Vortaro: Inter fi k aĉ estas tia diferenco, ke aĉ esprimas, ke iun aŭ ion oni juĝas malbonkvalita, netaŭga ks, dum fi esprimas negativan juĝon el morala vidpunkto. (Between fi and aĉ, the difference is that aĉ expresses that someone or something is judged poor-quality, unsuitable, etc, while fi expresses negative judgement from a ...


8

See the similar question Why are country names in Esperanto so "irregular"?. The suffix -uj- is used in the Fundamento, while -i- is a newer addition. But they mean the same in the context of country names. The difference is that -i- is used only for country names, and -uj- is also used for containers (monujo = purse/wallet, not money-land!). Some people ...


8

Certe oni povas fari vortludojn per la sufikso -um. Unu el la plej konataj estas geumi, kiu povas havi diversajn signifojn depende de la kunteksto: amindumi, flirti, seksumi kun aliseksa partnero. Tamen, se oni kreas tiajn vortludojn, oni atentu, ĉu ĉiu komprenos ilin. Ĉe varsoviumi mi tuj pensis pri vizito al Varsovio kun ĝiaj interesaĵoj, butikoj, ...


8

As often occurs in PIV, the definition is a bit narrower than actual usage. Certainly ek- can connote abruptness, but such abruptness isn't necessarily part of the meaning. It's worth noting the that Plena Vortaro (PV), which predates PIV, has as its first definition simply "komenciĝanta ago", and among the usage examples is a quote from Zamenhof, Ekbruligu ...


7

I think the word formation from suffixes should be thought of as more of a tool to aid memorisation rather than a completely logical system. Often the constructed word takes on a very concrete meaning that doesn't always follow on from the more general meaning that could be interpreted from the components. Although ice cream isn't the only thing glaciajô ...


7

I have definitely seen franjo and fraĉjo and I use them myself. Here is a PMEG page describing possible familiar ways a person might call their family: Parencoj kaj familianoj Antono nomas Hugon Fraĉjo, kaj li nomas Mesalinon Franjo. Antono havas unu onklon, Petro (frato de lia patrino). Li nomas lin oĉjo Petro, aŭ simple Oĉjo Nino havas du avojn, Adamo (la ...


6

Here are some that come to mind, not chosen very scientifically... Farendaĵo - far-end-aĵ-o - A thing that must be done, an errand, an obligation. More literally: a "must-do" thing. fari = to do -end- = affix which denotes something to be done or which must be done -aĵ- = a thing Mi havas iom da farendaĵojn hodiaŭ. = I have some things I need to do today. ...


6

I have programmed a tool that has parsed all the words in the Tekstaro de Esperanto. The most common compounds with four roots+affixes in this corpus are the following ones (the number of occurrences of the compound in the Tekstaro de Esperanto is indicated in brackets): maljunulino (191) homaranismo (129) sendependeco (63; note that depend is not a root, ...


6

A nice example which comes to my mind is senarbarigo (deforestation). It is based on the radical arb/o (tree), with the following affixes: -aro: a set (with some internal consistency), so arbaro means forest -igo: the action of causing to be, so arbarigo means forestation or afforestation sen-: without, so senarbarigo literally means "causing to not be a ...


6

Mi havas la saman impreson, sed ne povas provizi vin per datumoj. Laŭ mia scio neniu ĝis nun sisteme esploris la fenomenon, kvankam ĝi meritus magistran, se ne doktoran laboraĵon. Ke -iĝ- eniras en lokojn, kie antaŭe oni uzis nur la pasivon, estas efektive tute natura kaj komprenebla evoluo, ĉar ili havas similan ĉefan funkcion, nome montri, ke la sintaksa ...


6

-iĝ' kun la signifo fariĝi (ĉi tie limigita aplikeble), implicas disvolvon/transiron de unu stato al al alia. Tio do estas daŭro, fluo. ek- kun la signifo de komenco, estas pli abrupta. Do eĉ se la signifoj estas samaj, la nuancasocioj diferencas: Mi stresiĝis pro la daŭraj telefonvokoj. Mi ekstresis pro la lastminute donita laboro. Do eble post la unuaj ...


6

Short answer Sometimes it is necessary to separate two different ideas, when -o is something more abstract and -aĵo something more concrete. manĝo = meal manĝaĵo = food intereso = the feeling of being interested interesaĵo = something interesting La libro vekis mian intereson. Mi aĉetis kelkajn interesaĵojn. In other cases it makes no difference. ...


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