12

According to PMEG: Oni uzas ĉiu, se oni konsideras la individuojn aparte. Oni uzas ĉiuj, se oni pensas pri la tuta grupo kune. I.e. ĉiu corresponds (for the most part) to "each" and ĉiuj to "all". Examples: Al ĉiu el la infanoj mi donis po tri pomoj -> I gave each of my children three apples (each individual ended up with three of their own) El ĉiuj miaj ...


11

The -o correlatives are noun-like and although they don't take a plural, they are described by adjectives, not adverbs. Therefore, in every case that you listed, you would need an adjective. Tio estas vera. Ĉio estas mirinda en nia mondo. Io ne estas ĝusta pri ĝi. Your last two examples could be adverbs depending on what you mean. Io stranga okazis - ...


10

The formation of the correlatives is based on a logical table of combinations of two pieces, so in a sense if you can learn all of the pieces you can effectively learn all of the words without having to memorise them. When I was learning them the course book I was using had them represented as a table in the appendix at the back which really helped me to ...


10

Just think of kiom as a numeral like unu, du, tri...kiom? (one, two, three...how many?) Unua means first, dua is second, tria is third, dudeka is twentieth. Kioma is, well, there is no word for it in English (other languages do have such words), but you might imagine something like "how manyeth?". Saying kioma you are asking for an ordinal number: Kioma ...


9

Kioma is used to ask about anything which is an ordered sequence. Here are some examples of it being used other than to ask the time. Kaj li rememoris (kioman fojon en ĉi tiu jaro!) la maljustaĵojn De la kioma etaĝo vi estas? ĝis kioma grado (dua, tria, ktp.) de kioma tago kaj de kiu monato Kiome is much less common. My take is that it's a synonym for ...


7

The best way to learn grammar is to read a good book about the subject. The best book about Esperanto is probably Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko and it is free. But this approach is not simple and suitable for beginners. Use it when you feel ready. I suggest you do not start studying the entire table. Some correlative are very rare. See the ...


7

In much the same way I treat active and passive participles, as I practice and read new things, I try to use the exhaustive definition of each correlative so that it sticks into my brain in a more rounded way. This is especially useful for the ti-, i-, ĉi-, neni- correlatives: I read tial as "(for) that reason", ial as "(for) some reason", etc. It also ...


7

The photo is from the Scienca Revuo vol. 3, nr-o. 12 (1952). Otherwise, I think they are inspired by Russian, but completely regular: "inspiritaj de la rusaj escepte regulaj korelativoj)", as this webpage says.


7

Ambaŭ estas ĝustaj, kaj la poseda rilato povas preni iun ajn formon: de unu al unu, de unu al pluraj, de pluraj al unu, de pluraj al pluraj, ktp. Ĉies patrino ricevos cent dolarojn. (= la patrino de ĉiu) Ĉi tiu mondo estas ĉies mondo. (= la mondo de ĉiuj) Ĉies gepatroj ricevos cent dolarojn. (= la gepatroj de ĉiu) Ĉi tiuj libroj en la librejo estas ĉies ...


6

"nun" and "ĉi tiam" are very different nun is for referencing the present time. tiam is for referencing a particuliar moment, that can be the present time, but not always. ĉi can indicate proximity in time, but also in context (where you put the focus in one particuliar time out of several that were mentionned). Even when "ĉi" is used for time proximity, ...


6

En tiaj okazoj oni uzas ĝenerale la singularon, ĉar la pluralo (kiel markita, pli specifa formo) implikus, ke oni ja scias, ke temas pri ia kvanto (>1) kaj volas nur ekscii, kiom ekzakte.


6

Don't try to memorize them at once. Just try to concentrate on some specific topic and talk about this specific topic. Use as little of them as possible. But the most important thing is: learn only in context Example. Try to talk about the weather. Build sentences like this: Kia estas la vetero? - La vetero estas varma Kiam la vetero denove iĝas malvarma?...


6

I think this was clearly a case of Zamenhof using a system that was in common use among Romance languages. For example the proximal pronouns in French are (ce, ici, ci) and in Italian it's (ci) So, it appears that he took both the idea and form from those languages.


5

1) Know alternatives. It helps understanding. When you are confident enough, use the corresponding correlative. This will help you for the second part of the correlative. Tio -> Tiu aĵo/afero Tie -> En tiu ejo/loko Tiam -> En tiu momento Tiom -> En tiu kvanto Tia -> En tiu tipo Tiel -> En tiu maniero Ties -> De tiu persono 2) Memorize by rote some examples ...


4

According to PMEG: Ĉi tiam aŭ tiam ĉi ne estas praktike uzataj. Anstataŭe oni uzas nun. Noto: La preciza nuanco de ĉi tiam estas malklara, ĉar ĝi apenaŭ estas uzata. Oni povus diskuti, ĉu ĉi tiam estas preferinda, kiam temas pri okazoj kaj kondiĉoj, dum nun ordinare estas tempa. Eble tempa ĉi tiam povas esti malpli forte ligita al la absoluta ...


4

put in Tio estas vere, simply because that sounded more familiar. Now I want to know, is that grammatically wrong? Yes. It is wrong. Tio takes the place of a noun. Describing a noun with an adverb doesn't work. Adverbs modify verbs (they also modify adjectives and other adverbs). Tio estas vere = That thing (tio) really is (estas vere)... - It is an ...


4

There is certainly a lot of overlap - but notice that in your examples, ĝin generally replaces nouns and noun phrases, while tion replaces verbs and phrases that include verbs.


4

Simply put, ĉiu is singular and ĉiuj is plural. Therefore, ĉiu refers to one thing at a time, and ĉiuj refers to many things (collectively.) You can also check how these are glossed in a bilingual dictionary. ĉiu: each, chacun, jede ĉiuj: all, tous, alle


4

The grammar on lernu has a very extensive explanation of the correlatives, that is too long to cite here but definitely worth checking out. Here is a link to the English version of it. (You can change the language at the bottom if you want to read it in a different language, assuming a translation is available). There is also a nice table layout of the ...


4

Yes, it can be omitted there too: Estas makaronioj [tio], kion ni manĝas. Pli da informo: PMEG - Rilata kio


4

"You have such a cute dog!" Vi havas beletan hundon! If you are suprised, say because you only have cats, then you could say: What dog? Ĉu hundon? (it is a bit what you looked for when you mentioned kio hundo?) Maybe you have many dogs and you'd like to know which one is the cute one, then: Which dog? Kiun hundon? You will be understood if you ask: ...


4

alia iu - something/someone else Oni diras iu alia. La klarigo gramatika troveblas ĉi tie, sed oni povas resumi jene: "Iu iom similas al individueca aŭ duondifina unu." alia io Kvankam vi teorie povus diri tion tiel (Zamenhof en frua teksto skribis "kio estas la aldona io, pri kiu ...") la kutima ordo estas io alia. io ajn malbona - ...


3

I had a lot of trouble learning the correlatives until I broke them down and learned each part individually. So, I rote memorized ki-, i-, neni-, etc and -am, -om, -el, etc. Then I started working on parsing the words in texts: ki-am, ki-el, ki-o, etc. Then eventually they turned into their own words: kiam, kiel, kio. That was what worked best for me.


3

All correlatives start with ki, meaning a question or relative pronoun; ĉi, meaning every; i, meaning some; nen meaning "no," or ti, meaning "that". This is what marks it as a correlative. Next, we add the part-of-speech marker. -o marks it as a noun, so "kio" means something like "question-noun," or "what," while ĉio means "every-noun," which translates ...


2

The pseudo prefixes are Indoeuropean, ki- for instance from q- which in Slavonic and Romance became k- / q- and in Germanic, Sanskrit (conjunctions only) w-. ĉi- for the French chaque. neni- instead of a fitting ni- because of French and sound differentiation, negative ne. The pseudo suffixes -a, -o, and even the location related adverb -e, -en are trivial. ...


2

Ŝajnas ke plej plena priskribo de korelativoj estas en libro Etimologia Vortaro de Esperanto. Se vi komprenas la rusan en la artikolon vi eblas legi rerakonton pri korelativoj.


2

Being at home in the matrix of correlatives with their meaning is the most important. ki- question or subphrase, -u selected (adj, person). Then search the difference between kio and kiom, by inventing examples. So one can feel certain on their correctness when using. The memorizing is the easiest part, because of the cross-wise repetition of those ...


2

I have silly tricks for remembering, these are mine but everyone should come up with their own. kiel - is an anagram of like and the question "how did it happen" is answered by "it happened like this" kiam - this is easy since "am" is used for time, as in 9am. kial - I remember the phrase "why do I Always Laugh?" kiu - the "u" is a bit like the end of "...


2

Memorizing them is the best way, I think. I used the Memrise course. But an essential part of learning the correlatives is using them as jokes. Conversation like these make so much more fun in Esperanto: Why? Because. Kial? Tial. 😄


2

Its very difficult to simply memorise them. So, study a little and let them soak into your brain over time through reading and listening. This is a very good book: Mastering the Correlatives in Esperanto: Learning from Examples


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