30

According to Reta Vortaro: Malgraŭ la impreso kiun oni povas ricevi el PIV, en Esperanto la vorto Usono ne estas mallongigo de la Esperanta vortgrupo „Unuiĝintaj Ŝtatoj de Nord-Ameriko“, sed plenvalora vorto, proponita ekster Esperantujo de usonanoj Frank Lloyd Wright kaj James Duff Law kaj aliaj laŭ la angla vortgrupo „United States of North ...


19

From the Esperanto Wikipedia article Mojosa: La vorto ekestis en novembro de 2003 dum la TEJK-seminario en Söjtör (Hungario) per iniciato de Gregor Hinker, Felix Zesch, Carl Mäsak kaj ceteraj seminarianoj, kiam oni konstatis la fortan mankon de esperanto-vorto kiu signifus la samon kiel la angla vorto cool, sed ne en la laŭvorta senco (malvarmeta), sed en ...


14

As explained in PMEG, -aĵ- is often used to form words for prepared foods. The word glaciaĵo falls into this category. I always found it very logical, once one knows that -aĵ- can have the special meaning of a prepared food. Ice cream is a prepared food that is technically a kind of ice. The fact that many other languages have a word related to ice for ice ...


14

It comes from the pseudonym of Kazimierz Bein. He was also, for a time, a prominent Esperanto author, translator and activist, until in 1911 he suddenly, without explanation, abandoned the Esperanto movement. Bein became at least as well known for his involvement with Esperanto as for his medical accomplishments, and as much for the manner in which he left ...


14

Saluton is simply a shorthand way of saying the complete sentence: Mi donas al vi saluton! The reason for the accusative ending is to denote that the greeting is the object, of which I am giving to you. You'll see the same pattern with other things, such as Dankon and Bonan matenon. PMEG has further explanation if you want to read more about it (in ...


13

There are of course lots of words in Esperanto that originate in a non-Indo-European language, but that have become internationally used words. Some examples are faraono ('pharao'), tabuo ('taboo') and haŝiŝo ('hashish'). The only Esperanto word that I know about that is non-Indo-European and not widely used in European languages is zorio (flip-flop).


13

French was the world language prior to the second world war. Latin had great influence in the national school systems. And in scientific nomenclature. Slavic languages were not in high regard. Germany was central in Europe. French was modern, trendy. Letters by air mail were "PAR AVION," the hair stylist was coiffeur or friseur. Children of the well-to-do ...


13

Via demando estas neniel stulta, sed tiaj demandoj ("kial tiu vorto estis elektita") ne havas absolutajn respondojn. Ni ne povas iri en la kapon de la unua uzanto de la vorto, verŝajne Zamenhof mem. Eble li simple prenis la plej Latinecan vorton, el la Franca myrtille aŭ el la scienca nomo Vaccinium myrtillus, ĉar la alilingvaj nomoj ŝajnis havi nenion ...


12

Esperanto uses the long scale, used in most of continental Europe, as opposed to the short scale, in Europe used mostly in England and Russia. A detailed Wikipedia article about the two scales is here. Interestingly, England used to use the long scale, but eventually switched to the short scale, apparently mostly due to US influence. PMEG gives the ...


11

I can quote a translation of the book “Que sais-je ? : L'Espéranto” [What do I know? : Esperanto] by Pierre Janton: More than 75% of the lexemes are taken from Latin languages, in particular from Latin and French, and 20% from the Anglo-germanic languages, the remaining include loan-words from Greek, above all scientific ones, Slavic languages and, ...


11

Esperanto has many international words that originally come from non-Indo-European languages, but that had already been adopted in European languages when they were borrowed by Esperanto. Here I will try to make a list of all the words that seem to be directly borrowed from non-Indo-European languages. The Esperanto word for "reindeer" is boaco, and it ...


11

Both Cherpillod (Konciza Etimologia Vortaro, p. 199) and Vilborg (Etimologia Vortaro de Esperanto, S-Z, p. 161) consent that -ing- stems from the German suffix -ling (masc.), which has a very broad meaning (Flüchtling 'refugee', Liebling 'darling', in Esperanto it in most cases would be -ul(et)o) and in the word Fingerling 'finger stall' exactly matches ...


10

Wiktionary offers several possibilities: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/krokodili#Etymology including "From crocodile tears. A crocodile sheds tears while eating its prey. The krokodilanto bemoans the fate of Esperanto while not bothering to speak it."


10

It comes from Kazimierz Bein aka Kabe, one of the early Esperantists, who all of a sudden in 1911 stopped all his Esperanto activity without any comment. https://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabe


10

In the dictionary Konciza Etimologia Vortaro by André Cherpillod is: farti. G Wohlfahrt «bonfarto, bonstato» ← Fahrt «veturado» ← HE por «trairi». fari. I fare, Oc far, F faire ← L făcĕre ← HE dhe, dha «meti». (...) The abbreviations are G: germana (German), HE: hindeŭropa (Indo-European), I: itala (Italian), Oc: okcitana (Occitan), F: franca (French), L: ...


10

Eblas konjekti pli precize, ĉar ni havas tekstojn de pra-Esperanto (frua, ne publika versio de la lingvo) en ĝia stato je 1881. La diakritaj literoj tiutempe estis: Áá / Ćć / DŹ dź / Éé / Ħħ / Óó / Śś / Ŭŭ / Źź El ĉi tiuj, la (malaperontaj) vokaloj estis uzataj por verbaj finaĵoj similaj al tiuj de la itala lingvo, movantaj la akcenton al la lasta silabo....


9

Zamenhof provided the terms for chess pieces in response to someone who asked for them. It's on the internet somewhere, but my google-fu is failing me right now. However, the base terms were established very early on, and the game itself (ŝako) is a Fundamento word.


9

According to Wiktionary it comes from the Polish piłka (pronounced [ˈpiwkä]), where it also means ‘ball’.


8

The Italian word frase is pronounced (sans the different vowel ending) like in Esperanto and means sentence, like in Esperanto. (According to Wiktionary, Catalan, Asturian, and Portuguese also use the word frase, but they were, as far as I know, not root repositories for Esperanto.)


8

Yes, there are words derived from other languages, for example: Words derived from Arabic, such as haŝiŝo derived from حَشِيش Words derived from Japanese, such as kamikazo derived from 神風, or karaoko.


8

Some affixes don't bear obvious resemblance to equivalents in other languages, such e.g. ul. The correlatives are also mostly a priori: some prefixes, such as neni- or ki-, are probably influenced by other languages, but no other language Zamenhof knew of has words close to ĉiam or iu. Edzo also doesn't have a clear origin. Wiktionary says about edzino: ...


7

Yes, although there are not much of them. While the correlative table has inspiration in other languages, some words in the table have no derivation at all from other languages, and instead come completely out of the applied system in Esperanto, like "iom". Also some derived words have nothing to do any more with the original components, like necesejo. (...


7

I think the word formation from suffixes should be thought of as more of a tool to aid memorisation rather than a completely logical system. Often the constructed word takes on a very concrete meaning that doesn't always follow on from the more general meaning that could be interpreted from the components. Although ice cream isn't the only thing glaciajô ...


7

This is not a problem that is particular to Esperanto but results from the fact that there are two systems for naming numbers (the short scale and the long scale). Note that this ambiguity is also true for triliono. The word miliardo comes from the long scale, but as it doesn't exist in the short scale it is the recommended way to refer to 10⁹ (a US billion) ...


7

Ne nur la franca sed ankaŭ la itala havas similan formon (mirtillo). Mirtelo, kiel multaj plantoj, prenas sian Esperantan nomon de la t.n. “latina nomo” (Vaccinium myrtillus).


7

I'd say there are two ways to look at it. I'm now about to ramble about the subject for a while, but you can just scroll to the conclusion at the end if you don't want to read all that. Firstly, as you probably know, the interjection "fek" comes from the word "feko", which means poo or feces. (In fact, the word comes directly from "feces". The C used to be ...


7

It's from Polish piłka and Yiddish pilke - probably chosen over the alternatives to avoid collision with the word balo.


7

There seems to be two questions here: What does saluton mean alone? According to PIV, it means: Ekstera signo de ĝentileco, kiun oni esprimas per vortoj aŭ movoj al renkontata persono Which roughly translated means: An external sign of politeness, that you express with words or movements to someone you recognise. With this meaning, I don’t think ...


6

From Latin "phrasis", itself from Greek "φρασις": manner of expression. This is where we get "phrase" in English. http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.80:1:184.LSJ


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