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12

There are other languages like this too, such as Latino, Tokipono etc. The difference comes from the fact that the names of most languages are derived from root words which have a different meaning, such as a group of people. For example la hispana is short for la hispana lingvo and it effectively means the language of the Spanish people. Esperanto is ...


12

Esperanto is an international language already in use, so the correct way is not to look only at the English form of the term, but to: first check whether a suitable Esperanto term is already in use for the intended meaning (and whether makes sense sufficiently and/or has become idiomatic due to very regular use). For this, consult both dictionaries, ...


10

When transliterating names you always have two choices: Do you want to approximate the way the name sound as closely as possible, or do you want to closely match the way the name is written? You usually want to have the former for personal names, but the latter may be useful, lest the name become unrecognizable (for city's this might be convenient). In this ...


9

As mentioned in Lyubomir’s answer, presumably the reason is just because that’s how it’s done in many other languages. However I’d add to that that the adjective doesn’t always match the noun, it matches the thing it’s describing which can be more than the following noun. In some cases this can resolve some ambiguity which can’t be done in English. For ...


7

Adjectives agree with nouns in case and number (that is, they share the -j and-n endings) because the rules of Esperanto require it. Not making your nouns and adjectives agree would mark a speaker as a beginner and call attention away from what they're saying and onto how they are saying it. Many of the languages that Zamenhof (the first author of Esperanto) ...


7

When I encountered this use of ”adjectivized” nouns I also found it a little bit strange. If you keep in mind that adding an -a to a noun root means ”related to...” I believe you will get the hang of it. To me there are three levels of describing a noun using a different noun, the first one being the strongest, most specific bond and the last being the ...


6

I would say here La grupo timas or La grupanoj timas and not even use an adjective. Note here that with -an- you still have a very similar effect without using membroj de.


6

Kial ne? Vere, kial ne? Mi supozas, ke tiun decidon faris Zamenhof kaj mi ne scias ĉu li respondis al ĝi en iu de liaj lingvaj respondoj, sed se mi devus supozi, mi dirus, ke unu el la kialoj estus tio, ke multe da lingcoj faras tion: Slavaj lingvoj faras tion; Latinidaj lingvoj faras tion; La germana lingvo faras tion (mi ne scias ĉu la aliaj ĝermanaj ...


6

It's called the gerund form. In Esperanto it's generally done with the "-ad-" affix (means continual action). Sometimes the affix isn't necessary and you can just use the noun form ("-o") of the root. But often, the noun form has a specific meaning. So a few examples: kuri (to run) -> kurado (running). Kuro doesn't work because it means course like race ...


6

Yes, there is, and the reason you found it to be hard find by keywords may be that this is actually a trivial task in Esperanto that goes beyond the specific case of verbs and nouns. Any word is formed of a root (here fand - melt) optionally one or more affixes (here kun- is a prefix meaning roughly "together", and -iĝ-, making this an intransitive verb, i....


6

Here are all the given names that appear in the Fundamento de Esperanto. I list them in the form in which they appear there, i.e. sometimes with contracted ending (e.g. Henriet' instead of Henrieto), if that is how they appear in the Fundamento. Male given names: Aleksandro Antono Aŭgusto Ernesto Georgo Izraelo Johano Jozefo Ludoviko Nikodemo Nikolao Paŭlo ...


5

Any name can be 'esperantised', usually by adding an -o, and transliterating the sounds with the respective Eo approximations. Double letters seem to be dropped. I'm just looking at Chris Gledhill's translation of The Hobbit (La Hobito), and some of the names there are Bilbo Baginzo (Bilbo Baggins), Golumo (Gollum), Smauxgo (Smaug), Gandalfo, Dvalino (...


5

Yes. The examples you give, neĝoj and akvoj, are quite common, and you will also encounter ĉieloj, sabloj, eternoj.


4

This adjectiveness is taken from various national languages and is short for la angla/franca lingvo. And anglo is Englishman. English and French are adjectives too. As "Esperanto" is a sufficient long name, la esperanta never took hold, besides maybe being a bit more ambiguous (the hoping).


4

Sendube estas multaj. Jen listo el Vikipedio. eno (tio kio estas ene de io) - eno (japana monunuo) kubo (matematika figuro) - Kubo (lando) gama (rilate al gamo) - gama (greka litero) ĉar' (= ĉaro) - ĉar (pro tio ke) koro (organo) - koro (mezurunuo. golfo (akva areo) - golfo (sporto) Karolo (nomo) - karolo (himno) flustro (mallaŭta parolo) - flustro (insekto)...


4

I think you are free to use the original spelling name, use a transliteration as commented by Joffysloffy or use the most common variant in Esperanto. You can find variants of some names on Wikipedia. On Wikipedia is written that the Italian name Guglielmo is a variant of the old Germanic name Wilhelm. The variant for Esperanto shown there is Vilhelmo. ...


4

The others mentioned legacy from other languages that Zamenhof spoke. I'd like to point out and clarify, that just like the other elements of the language, this one is useful. It makes it possible to experiment with the word order without causing ambiguity. Look at these examples: La viro altan domon vidas. La viro alta domon vidas. Knabino sercxas ...


4

This is the general way inflecting languages work: Inflection is there to create coherence and redundancy, not only a meaningless decoration. So even in the very mildly inflecting language Esperanto, there is so-called agreement between the adjective and the noun: They share their inflectional endings. Note, that you can use it as a creative device: The ...


4

It eliminates ambiguity. Humor is often based on ambiguity, but is deadly in various other venues, especially travel. To illustrate, there is a famous joke from the movie “Mary Poppins” which would not work in Esperanto. It goes like this: A: “I know a man with a wooden leg named ‘Smith’.” B: “Really? What’s the name of his other leg?” The humor depends ...


3

Although you could use it to describe a single person having mixed gender, I think that would be a pretty unusual usage and it would be more common to describe a mixed group of people or a location that is suitable for any gender. Here are some examples from Monato: Krom la tradiciaj ekleziaj lernejoj unuseksaj, estis fonditaj en la du landpartoj de la ...


3

Mi scias ke almenaj kelkaj el tiuj ja havas kutimajn mallongigojn. Oni povis indiki la aĝon de infano tiel: Mi havas tri infanojn, Adamo (5j), Karlo (4j), kaj Gretil (3j). Jaro (j.) kaj jarcento (jc.) troviĝas en la jena listo. http://www.kafejo.com/lingvoj/auxlangs/eo/mallongi.htm En la diskuto pri la horo, oni klarigis ke eblas diri la horon tiel ...


2

There are quite a few words that are always or nearly always plural in Esperanto. Not only are there nouns that are always plural, but there are adjectives that are always plural. izomorfaj Marŝalaj pluraj Pontinaj Generally these are proper names Alpoj Andoj Balkanoj Galapagoj There are also some scientific terms that are always plural. anelidoj (a ...


2

There are a few: Kubo and kubo the country Cuba and a cube respectively; golfo the sport and a gulf; vato cotton and the unit watt; piĉo vulgar word for female genitals or pitch. There are probably a couple more, but I cannot think of any others. I will edit this answer if I find any incidentally.


2

I think you're falling victim to L1 interference here. While it is possible in English to use both singular and plural with certain nouns (team, group, but also data), this is not necessarily the same in other languages, including Esperanto. As per the grammatical rules (rule 3 of the fundamental 16), there is agreement between nouns and adjectives, so La ...


1

As you clarified the system yourself, the correct pair is grando - size / grandeco - bigness If you don't want to express that your shirt is big, but that it has the right size, your sentence should be Mi volas aĉeti ĉi tiun ĉemizon, sed mi ne trovas mian grandon. Cf. the following quotes from the Tekstaro, where grando means "size": la okulo ...


1

According to several non-English translations in ReVo grando means both magnitude and size. Here are some examples from the Spanish-Esperanto Dictionary by F. de Diego: Kiun grandon havas la ŝuoj? [What size are the shoes?] Mi portas la grandon 43an [I wear size 43 (shoe size)] I suppose the sentence [...] mi ne trovas mian grandecon is correct.


1

PIV donas nur s por ”sekundo” kaj min por ”minuto”. Do eble ni inventu la ceterajn? Jen ideo: s, min, h, sem, mon, j. Aŭ eĉ: s, min, hr, sem, mon, jr.


1

This is called redundancy, which according to linguists, is used to prevent miscommunication. There are some people that complain that Esperanto doesn't have enough redundancy.


1

Tio okazas ankaux en la franca kaj hispana lingvoj. Mi ne tajpis "la francaj kaj hispanaj lingvoj", pro tio ke mi skribis pri nur unu franca kaj unu hispana. Do tio ne cxiam okazas. Kaj gxuste cxi tie vi vidas la utilon. Mi ne igos mian respondon tro longa. En tiu frazo, "respondon" finigxas per "n" kaj "longa" ne. Cxio cxi estas iom pli komplika ol gxi ...


1

Converting a verb to a noun simply requires changing the ending. You can do this with almost any verb, although some verbs don't make sense as a noun in which case you cannot. kunfandi: To merge something kunfando: A merger of something http://www.reta-vortaro.de/revo/art/fand.html#fand.kun0i


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