28

In his Lingva Respondo called "Pri pronomo por «homo»", Zamenhof explicitly said that "ĝi" can be used as a gender-neutral pronoun. However, he also acknowledged the problem that "ĝi" can sound degrading when used for humans, as it is usually used only for objects and sometimes for children. Already in the 1970s, the proposal to use "ri" as a gender-neutral ...


19

You should use ci about as often as you would use thou in English. Or less. The purpose of ci was to provide an alternative, singular form of vi for use in translations (or pseudo-translations), when a sudden change in the choice of pronoun has to be rendered. For example, in Kastelo de Prelongo, the language spoken by the characters is French, which ...


17

In the Unua Libro (the first book about Esperanto from 1887), ci doesn't appear at all. Later Zamenhof introduced it in order to be able to render in translated works the distinction that most European languages make between a polite and a familiar second-person pronoun (tu-vous in French, Du-Sie in German, ты-вы in Russian, tú-usted in Spanish). However he ...


14

Sadly, like English, Esperanto has several solutions, none of which are entirely satisfactory. According to PMEG, li essentially has two meanings: one is used to refer to a male person when the sex is known and the other is to refer generally to a person when the sex is unknown. So in theory in this case you should use li, and that is apparently the ...


12

Zamenhof's intuition was that human beings could be li, ŝi, or ĝi, but that animals are always ĝi. Kiam oni parolas pri bestoj, mi konsilas ĉiam uzi nur la senseksan pronomon “ĝi”, — ne sole kiam (en la plimulto da okazoj) la sekso de la priparolata besto estas por ni indiferenta, sed eĉ en tiaj okazoj, kiam ni parolas precize pri la sekso de la besto. En ...


10

The function of the form -u in Esperanto is broader than the imperative known from Western European languages, hence it sometimes is called "volitive". It marks something not as real (indicative -a/i/os) or imagined (conditional -us), but as desired by the speaker. By this, it can be combined with all persons (mi legu tion finfine "I should/shall/must ...


10

You asked for short: Use si/sia when both are true the pronoun is not part of the subject. the pronoun refers to the subject of the verb. Regarding point 1: you'll never see la viro kaj sia edzino estas... because lia edzino is part of the subject. Regarding point 2: it's important to notice that it's the subject of the verb and not the subject of the ...


10

Use si or sia when referring to the already-introduced subject of the sentence: La virino rigardis la bildon antaŭ si -> "The woman looked at the picture in front of her", the picture is in front of the subject of the sentence ("the woman") Li eniris sian domon -> "He entered his (own) house", the house belongs to the subject of the sentence ("he") La ...


10

You can do it either way. From Fratoj Grimm “Refreŝigu vin. La bovino ne donados lakton, ŝi estas maljuna bruto, ŝi povas taŭgi nur kiel tirbesto aŭ en buĉejo.” From Malnova Testamento Kaj oni forbruligu la bovinon antaŭ liaj okuloj: ĝian felon kaj ĝian karnon kaj ĝian sangon kune kun ĝia sterko oni forbruligu.


9

Usually Esperanto prefers syntactical over semantic aggreement, hence as Nintendo is a singular, it should be ĝi. However, there is no rule nor tradition forbidding the use of plural ili in such cases, where the noun is inherent pluralic (especially when the distance between the noun and the pronoun ist bigger). Cf. PMEG: Ĝi ankaŭ povas reprezenti unu-...


8

Ĝenerale jes. La plej rilata sekcio en PMEG donas tri ekzemplojn de uzoj de kie anstataŭ en kiu(j), ĉe kiu(j): (1) artikolojn, kie estis videble; (2) bieno, kie floris rozoj, (3) ne troviĝas, kie sidi. Rimarku, ke tiuj citaĵoj koncernas nur fizikajn lokojn. Tamen, mi trovis bonan ekzemplon de Zamenhofa uzo de kie por tute abstrakta loko: La diferenco en ...


6

I use Esperanto almost every day. I never use "ci", though I have heard it used many years ago in left wing (SAT) circles in Bordeaux. To show friendliness, I usually add a word, such as "Kiel vi, amiko?"


6

The use of sia is mandatory, there are no exceptions.* Every competent speaker will understand the sentence Li eniris lian domon as referring to two different men. *There are cases of complex constructions involving more than one acting person, where there can be hesitation whether sia or another pronoun of the third person is more clear. This, ...


5

I look at it this way. "Si" and "li" are different pronouns. Using the wrong pronoun in Esperanto is just as wrong as using the wrong pronoun in another language. In English you have to use "her" if the person you're talking about is female. If I were to say "Mary went into his house", everybody would know I was talking about someone else's house. In ...


4

Yes. From ReVo: la infano ploras, ĉar ĝi volas manĝi... ...ĉu ĝi estas vi? jes, ĝi estas mi...


4

When the sex is not known, you use ĝi Ĝi is used principally with animals and objects. Zamenhof also prescribed it to be the epicene pronoun for use when the sex of an individual is unknown. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender_reform_in_Esperanto#Extending_the_range_of_an_existing_pronoun When the sex is known, you also use ĝi according to the tekstaro. ...


3

The -u ending is used whenever there is any kind of pressure to do something. It can be used in a few ways. As a command Iru! (Go) As a firm suggestion Vi iru al la kinejo. (You should go to the cinema. Go on and go to the cinema.) As part of a bigger sentence Mi volas ke vi iru al la kinejo. (I want you to go to the cinema.) Mi pensas ke vi iru al la ...


3

In general ĝi should only be used to refer to things that don’t have a natural gender or where the gender is considered irrelevant, such as a young child or some animals. The definition in PIV is as follows: Pron., uzata por referenci aŭ al senseksa realaĵo aŭ al estaĵo, kies sekson oni ne bezonas precizigi That definition doesn’t mention cases where the ...


2

The grammar at Lernu regarding pronouns has detailed information about the use of si and sia, available in many languages (the link is to the English version), that is too long to copy here with all the examples. It is worth checking it out.


2

Both are correct; the imperative being for making something reality. legu = read! vi legu = you read!, you have to read, you should read Legu la artikolon, por ke vi komprenu la aferon. Vi pli bone legu la artikolon, por viaj poentoj en la lernejo. With a subject it is not called imperative in other languages. So the shortness makes it more of a command. ...


1

Pri la vortoj siaj kaj ŝiaj: Joan, perdite en siaj pensoj, forgesis ŝlosi la pordon. Temas pri la pensoj de Joan. Joan, perdite en ŝiaj pensoj, forgesis ŝlosi la pordon. Temas pri la pensoj de alia virino. La samo validas se en la frazoj oni uzas perdita anstataŭ perdite. Por plia klarigo vidu: PMEG - 11.6.1. Si en simplaj frazoj. Pri la vortoj perdite ...


1

La du frazoj bonas, sed la signifo estas malsama: Joan, perdite en siaj pensoj, forgesis ŝlosi la pordon. Perdite estas adverbo, ĝi rilatas la manieron, kiel ŝi forgesis ŝlosi la pordon. Oni povas imagi ŝin rigardante forforen dum ŝi plu marŝas, sen atenti pri la pordo. Perdite en siaj pensoj estas respondo por kiel ŝi forgesis tion. Pensu pri jena frazo: ...


1

Some Esperantists use gi, derived from the prefix ge-.


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