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32

dividi - to divide something into smaller pieces. kundividi - to share those pieces with other people. (everyone gets a bit) havigi - to make other people have something. In other words, to give, make available, provide, etc. kunhavigi - To make something common property of you and other people, without dividing it into pieces. Notes: dividi is often used ...


20

There seems to be a consensus, looking at the talk mentioned by Johmue, lernu.net, vortaro.net, and esperantujo.directory: Commands given to the user by the program/programmers use the imperative (e.g. Subtenu nin, Kontaktu nin, Enigu vian nomon) Commands the user gives to the program use the infinitive (e.g. Ensaluti, Serĉi) I would like to point out that ...


18

to care -> interesiĝi (pri) I do not care about politics Mi ne interesiĝas pri politiko to take care of -> okupiĝi (pri) I am taking care of the garden Mi okupiĝas pri la ĝardeno to worry -> maltrankviliĝi (pri/pro) I worry about my daughter. Mi maltrankviliĝas pri mia filino


16

Ŝalti kaj malŝalti estas la vortoj, kiujn mi uzas por tio. Ŝalti and malŝalti are the words which I use for that.


16

Komenci is transitive. If we are told that a word komencas, then what does it komenci? The only immediately intelligible answer is "itself". So it komencas sin or komenciĝas (= "is begun"). Lia nomo komenciĝas per A. His name starts with the letter A. By contrast: Skribante, mi ĉiam komencis mian personan nomon per grandega majusklo. In writing, I always ...


15

No, not as a standalone sentence. Tense-marking in Esperanto is obligatory; the fact that baldaŭ indicates a future time does not change this. According to PMEG (the Complete Handbook of Esperanto Grammar): AS-verbo montras, ke la ago aŭ stato estas reala, efektiva, kaj ke ĝi komenciĝis, sed ne finiĝis. A verb ending with -as shows that the action or ...


14

You can say: Mi ŝatas dancadon. Its meaning is similar to the one Mi ŝatas danci has, though it does not explicitly say that what you like is you dancing. It could also be used when all you like is watching others dancing, though to avoid misunderstandings, it would be better to say this explicitly, for example with Mi ŝatas rigardi dancadon.. I guess ...


14

Both are correct, and they have practically the same meaning. By themselves, pro and por have quite different meanings. Basically, pro means 'because of' and por means 'for'. Pretty much all the meanings of English for can be expressed with por, with the exception of the meaning of because of: If you want to say "for that reason", you have to say "pro tiu ...


13

I dug into this question back in May of this year and this is what I found out. Verbs of sense perception (odori, gusti) take an adverb. La supo gustas bone. The verb aspekti can take either/or (according to PMEG.) La supo aspektas bone/bona. The verb ŝajni (and presumably any other verb that allows you to shove an esti after it - like ŝajnas esti bona) ...


13

The word zorgi is vague, but in many cases, surrounding details make it clear what the situation is. In your example, Mi zorgas pri mia avino would usually be followed by something like Mi volus viziti pli ofte (in the first case) or Mi devis transloĝiĝi en ŝian domon (in the second). However, the word prizorgi always implies active involvement, and ...


12

In Esperanto we normally say "Mi scias nenion" for "I don't know anything". So like in standard English, we only use one negation, but we tend to put it into a correlative (table word) if possible, rather than using "ne". However, it is also possible to use "ne" in combination with a non-negative correlative, i.e. to say "Mi ne scias ion ajn", which is ...


11

emi is fine. To emphasise that it's not your personality you can say ĵus nun mi ne emas. EDIT: After a discussion with trustworthy competent Esperantists it turns out that my use of ĵus is wrong in that context. It should be ĝuste nun mi ne emas.


11

We had this discussion back in about 2003, when I was leading the group who were translating the OpenOffice.org suite into Esperanto. It boiled down to whether one considers the application to be a tool with which the user accomplishes things, or whether the application is an entity which itself accomplishes tasks when prompted by the user. Someone in the ...


11

According to PMEG: "Post movaj verboj kiel iri kaj kuri, oni preferas I-verbon sen rolmontrilo, sed ankaŭ eblas uzi por." So, yes iri x-i is correct and means the same thing as iri por x-i. Note that, as vangelion said, these phrases involve actual movement/going, so some English phrases such as "go to sleep" which don't necessarily involve a change in ...


11

To this list we can add ŝofori. I've been asking myself this same question for close to 20 years and I've come to the conclusion that there is no obvious best answer. Each one at times seems to not quite to fit, and I notice that people tend to pick based on a number of factors, including the word that their Esperanto teacher used as well as national ...


10

There isn't any rule about how many infinitives you can have in a row; you can have as many as make sense in the context. A rather contrived example: Mi volas povi iri lerni danci - I want to be able to go learn to dance. The basic principle is that an infinitive, like any verb, can take a complement, which may be another infinitive, which in turn can take a ...


10

Veki is the transitive one. Recall that -iĝ- always yields an intransitive verb. You can also look in PIV to check the definition and the transitiveness of a verb. You use veki when something wakes someone up and you use vekiĝi when someone just wake up by themself. Here are some example sentences of how to use them: La sono de la vekhorloĝo vekis min. = ...


10

La ĝusta esprimo en ĉi tiu kunteksto estas ludigi, ĉar oni igas la aparaton ludi la muzikon.


9

In Esperanto you would use "por" to connect the second infinitive: Kion oni devas scii por povi kreskigi terpomojn. This is not a rule about infinitives but more syntax of the verbs.


9

"Priskribi" is long established in Esperanto, and essentially functions as an independent word, much like "eldoni". "Pridiri" and "vortpentri" are not forms in normal Esperanto usage, although they might occur in some contexts. There's no reason to look for an alternative to "priskribi" in the sense of "to describe" either in speech or writing.


9

You will find people who stand by the "complex tenses." (It's likely that a few will answer here.) The point of Esperanto is to be simple, and it's possible (and encouraged) to express any thought with the basic -as, -is, and -os. If the timing of the event needs to be clarified, it can be clarified by additional words. Participles are best thought of as ...


8

It depends on what the adjective/adverb is exactly refering to. An adjective is refering to a noun while an adverb is refering to a verb. Lets take "aspekti" as an example. La pano aspektas bone. This is the adverb form, thus refering to a verb, the verb is "aspektas". So this sentence means, that be bread is looking good just in terms of appearence but ...


8

Correct me if I’m wrong but I think preni is wrong in this context. Just because English uses take for pictures doesn’t mean Esperanto must too. I see no examples of such use on PIV and the many definitions of preni there seem to convince me that this use is wrong. I believe preni fotojn would actually mean you took the pictures from somewhere (in order ...


8

Certe oni povas fari vortludojn per la sufikso -um. Unu el la plej konataj estas geumi, kiu povas havi diversajn signifojn depende de la kunteksto: amindumi, flirti, seksumi kun aliseksa partnero. Tamen, se oni kreas tiajn vortludojn, oni atentu, ĉu ĉiu komprenos ilin. Ĉe varsoviumi mi tuj pensis pri vizito al Varsovio kun ĝiaj interesaĵoj, butikoj, ...


8

You will see it both ways. In most cases, you use instrui with al: Mi instruos al li la francan. However, it is possible for the learner to be the direct object (examples from Fratoj Grimm and La Malnova Testameno: “Mi konas rimedon, lin instrui timon.” Instruu knabon konforme al lia vojo Cases where the object of instrui is a pronoun are very common. ...


8

Using two direct objects with one verb is not recommended; I'm not sure if it's technically ungrammatical, or just strongly unpreferred, but in either case it's best to avoid sentences like *"Ŝi instruis lin la francan". The other two options are both acceptable, and I have seen both used frequently. Either the student or the subject taught can be the ...


8

La diferenco estas, ke "necesi" signifas "esti necesa", kaj "bezoni" signifas "suferi pro manko de [io necesa]" aŭ "ne povi agi sen [io]". Do "bezoni" uziĝas kiel la hispana "necesitar" (angle "to need"), dum "necesi" estas pli simila al la hispana "ser necesario" (angle "to be necessary"). Ekzemploj: Mi bezonas manĝaĵon. (Necesito comida / I need food) ...


8

I am of the school that too much thought is put into the transitivity of verbs. The transitivity follows directly from what the words mean. You've got to learn whether the meaning allows a direct object, just like you have to learn whether the verb will take a parameter with per or one with al. I am not sure I have a total explanation for you, but I will ...


8

A very good question and not easy to answer. I'll try anyhow, although my limited command of English makes it even harder. First some preliminaries (also useful for future questions): What you are asking less concerns transitivity (IMHO a useless concept) but rather thematic roles: peti iun and peti ion are both transitive use of a verb, but the objects ...


8

I suppose the short answer is "tradition." Many western languages work this way - where a verb-expression can be like the object of the verb - so it's natural that Esperanto works the same way. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are marked for accusative when they're direct objects, but verbs are not. If we want a longer answer, we first need to ask what we ...


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