11

PMEG havas longan diskuton pri la diversaj situacioj kie aliaj finaĵoj ol -o- estas permesataj por ligi radikojn. Pri -e- ĝi klarigas jene: Se la antaŭelemento estas vorteto (tia vorto, kiu ne bezonas finaĵon), oni normale ne uzas ligan finaĵon. Je bezono oni tamen povas uzi ligan E-finaĵon: postsigno → postesigno (faciligas la elparolon), postulo → ...


10

No, there’s no such suffix as far as I know and ankaŭ and ankoraŭ are just separate roots. I wouldn’t say that aŭ is a suffix either. It is just a common ending for roots where the role of the word is not clear. It still forms part of the root though because for example you can say ankoraŭa. In that case you are adding to the whole root word ankoraŭ instead ...


9

No, you should avoid using "oŭ" when creating a new word. Traditionally, Ŭ only appears after A and E, and this convention is still generally applied when creating new words. The only word with "oŭ" that ever managed to become a popular word was "poŭpo", but even that one is nowadays usually replaced by "pobo". The word "toŭfuo" was never very common: As ...


9

In compound words, you only use the accusative form for si. (This is discussed in PAG §310.) So the word you want is ĉiomanĝ(ant)a. Be aware that ĉiovora means omnivorous. In PIV, under ĉio, these examples are given of ĉio as prefix: ĉiofaranto (Dio), ĉiopardonaZ, ĉiopovaZ; ĉiovida, ĉiosciaZ, ĉiovora; ĉiovendejo all-doing (God), all-forgiving, all-...


9

As mentioned in Lyubomir’s answer, presumably the reason is just because that’s how it’s done in many other languages. However I’d add to that that the adjective doesn’t always match the noun, it matches the thing it’s describing which can be more than the following noun. In some cases this can resolve some ambiguity which can’t be done in English. For ...


9

This is a very interesting question. I think reduplication plays a role in Esperanto which hasn’t been sufficiently explored yet. What is the difference between Mi foje ludas ŝakon and Mi fojfoje ludas ŝakon and between Post multaj klopodoj nia teamo fine venkis and Post multaj klopodoj nia teamo finfine venkis ? As far as I can tell, the ...


9

Someone said to me years ago that language is not math. That is, when trying to express something in Esperanto, so-called "logic" can only take us so far. Eventually we have to use common sense, tradition, and the principle of neceso kaj sufiĉo. That is, there may not be an answer to these questions. It's true, however, that there are differences between ...


8

I think the system would basically be the same as in English except that you would need to add a -a at the end to make sure it is an adjective if the last word isn’t already adjectival. The hyphens would be optional unless it would make the meaning unclear because Esperanto naturally combines words like this anyway. Here are some example usages: From Monato:...


8

Any word is viable as part of a compound. The only limitation is whether it makes sense. Even "la" could be used in a compound if it makes sense to do so. As a contrived example: senlaa frazo.


8

In standard Esperanto, you do not have complete freedom to glue an adjective to a noun to get a new noun. For example, you can say flavĉapela virino ("yellow-hatted woman", adj + noun → adj) but it does not follow that you can say Ŝi aĉetis flavĉapelon instead of flavan ĉapelon. In the case of lignoglavo, the word is considered to be derived from glavo el ...


8

I would assume it's simply a phonological matter: you cannot easily pronounce *skribtablo because of the two successive plosives. It is of course perfectly possible, but skribotablo is somewhat easier to say. With labortablo that's not the case, and laborotablo adds an extra syllable which is not necessary to ease pronunciation. So, it's the principle of ...


7

Adjectives agree with nouns in case and number (that is, they share the -j and-n endings) because the rules of Esperanto require it. Not making your nouns and adjectives agree would mark a speaker as a beginner and call attention away from what they're saying and onto how they are saying it. Many of the languages that Zamenhof (the first author of Esperanto) ...


7

Perhaps it will be interesting for you to know that the same reduplication of words is often used in russian language (possibly in other slavic languages too) - in exactly the same way as in Esperanto (in order to increase the intensity of the word and its expressiveness). For examples: "полным-полна" (plenplena), "белым-бело" (blankblanke), "в конце концов"...


7

Like it or not memeo is here to stay. So is "meme" in the limited modern sense of "internet picture quote". The meaning from the 70's is often a surprise to people these days.


7

There is no rule that forbids the combination of affixes in Esperanto, as long as the resulting words have a recognizable sense.* There is, however, outside joking/mocking language (IIRC Karol Pič named Richard Schulz "tradukantanto", in order to mock his overly complicated style), no example known to me where the same affix would appear twice and have a ...


7

Mi ne pensas, ke ekzistas komunuza vorto por diri tion unuvorte. Se vi volas ion mallongan, mi rekomendus la duvortan esprimon "senkafeina kafo".


6

It's called the gerund form. In Esperanto it's generally done with the "-ad-" affix (means continual action). Sometimes the affix isn't necessary and you can just use the noun form ("-o") of the root. But often, the noun form has a specific meaning. So a few examples: kuri (to run) -> kurado (running). Kuro doesn't work because it means course like race ...


6

Yes, there is, and the reason you found it to be hard find by keywords may be that this is actually a trivial task in Esperanto that goes beyond the specific case of verbs and nouns. Any word is formed of a root (here fand - melt) optionally one or more affixes (here kun- is a prefix meaning roughly "together", and -iĝ-, making this an intransitive verb, i....


6

Searching Tekstaro for “oi”, I found a lot of examples of words with that vowel combination. Here are some examples: soifo heroino egoisto koincido troigo … As for pronounciation, as usual in Esperanto, it is “read what you see”. :) That is, it should be clear that it is “o” then “i”. One should not read it as if it was “oj” but I cannot ...


6

Here are some that come to mind, not chosen very scientifically... Farendaĵo - far-end-aĵ-o - A thing that must be done, an errand, an obligation. More literally: a "must-do" thing. fari = to do -end- = affix which denotes something to be done or which must be done -aĵ- = a thing Mi havas iom da farendaĵojn hodiaŭ. = I have some things I need to do today. ...


6

I have programmed a tool that has parsed all the words in the Tekstaro de Esperanto. The most common compounds with four roots+affixes in this corpus are the following ones (the number of occurrences of the compound in the Tekstaro de Esperanto is indicated in brackets): maljunulino (191) homaranismo (129) sendependeco (63; note that depend is not a root, ...


6

A nice example which comes to my mind is senarbarigo (deforestation). It is based on the radical arb/o (tree), with the following affixes: -aro: a set (with some internal consistency), so arbaro means forest -igo: the action of causing to be, so arbarigo means forestation or afforestation sen-: without, so senarbarigo literally means "causing to not be a ...


6

Blua kaj verda means an object is part blue and part green. Bluverda is a color that is between green and blue, such as the one in the following image which is a red 0, green 122, and blue 116.


6

Kial ne? Vere, kial ne? Mi supozas, ke tiun decidon faris Zamenhof kaj mi ne scias ĉu li respondis al ĝi en iu de liaj lingvaj respondoj, sed se mi devus supozi, mi dirus, ke unu el la kialoj estus tio, ke multe da lingcoj faras tion: Slavaj lingvoj faras tion; Latinidaj lingvoj faras tion; La germana lingvo faras tion (mi ne scias ĉu la aliaj ĝermanaj ...


6

En Esperanto, "ni" povas signifi unu el du aferoj: Mi, vi, kaj iuj aliaj personoj. Mi kun iuj aliaj personoj, sed ne vi. Se estas ŝanco de miskompreno, oni trovu alian manieron klarigi. Vi kaj mi iros al la trajno. Panjo restos hejme. Ni, tio estas mi kaj miaj kolegoj, faros la laboron.


6

In Esperanto, the root words themselves already have a meaning. So the root kat is already the animal and it is intrinsically a noun. Similarly, the root bel intrinsically represents the state of something so it is most naturally used as an adjective. However, neither of these roots can be used alone without an ending to classify it, so even though kat is a ...


5

The short forms are correct, and I would not blink if someone used kurantis ("was running") or irontis ("was about to go"). However, ordinary Esperanto style tends to avoid compound tenses, and I think to most people the heavy use of short forms will sound bookish, even arcane. They are certainly used in speech in situations in which the standard form seems ...


5

Pri via fina demando - ĉu oni ĉiam povas uzi "-e-", kaj "-a-" (aŭ "-i-" aŭ "-u-" ) kiel kunigilo - mi respondas ke ne. Oni povas fari tion nur kiam la senco de la vorteroj permesas. "Pagipova" estas bona vorto, ĉar ĝi venas de la frazero "povi pagi", sed "libribreto" ne estas bona vorto por "breto por libroj." Estas pli da ekzemplo en la sekcio pri "...


5

I had, as I recall, a fairly lengthy exchange with Bertilo on this very question. It's his position that true reduplication does not exist in Esperanto and that all cases which have been called reduplication can be explained as normal word-building. I am not sure I agree, and neither to the authors of the Wikipedia article who wrote: Reduplication is ...


5

”Meme” is memeo, as far as I know. :-) I don’t agree with you on this: ”In an artificial and logical language we should always avoid increase the number of basic roots.” Esperanto is a living language, and the number of roots has been increasing since Zamenhof released it. The word geno, as you suggest in ”kulturo-geno” and ”ago-geno”, did not originally ...


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