20

Simple rule of thumb - if you are able to substitute "whether" (I don't know whether he's friendly) then use "ĉu".


19

pro is a preposition so it should be followed by a noun. ĉar is a conjunction so it can be followed by a complete phrase. Both of them indicate that the thing following it is the cause of the thing preceding it. For example: Mi ne iris eksteren pro la malvarmo. Mi ne iris eksteren ĉar estas malvarme. In this case the two phrases are saying more or less the ...


17

The words following se provide the condition under which the other clause becomes relevant. So, Mi ne scias se li estas amika means "If it is the case that he is friendly, then I do not know." You need ĉu to express the fact that scias controls the other clause in the manner of ke. (Note that amika is slightly stronger than the English friendly, which ...


16

“per” denotes who or what helps the sentence happen. It can denote an instrument: Bati iun per bastono. Trafi du celojn per unu ŝtono. Ni vidas per la okuloj kaj aŭdas per la oreloj. It can denote an intermediary actor: Sendi leteron per servisto. It can denote a body part serving as a locus for some action: Teni la hundon per la oreloj. It can denote ...


15

Post on its own is a preposition, not an adverb, meaning that it describes a relationship between two entities (usually nouns or phrases). Poste is an adverb that modifies a verb. Examples: La hundo iras post mi -> "The dog is going after/behind me". Post describes the relationship between me and the dog La hundo iris post kiam mi iris -> "The dog went ...


14

I'd like to change the examples slightly to this, so not by strato, but by parko. Mi iras tra la parko. (I am going through the park.) Usually you don't use the direction marker -n here, but it's not completely forbidden. You could use it for example to emphasize that you are going straightly through the park and straightly aiming the exit at the other ...


14

They are definitely not the same, PIV defines purpura like this: Havanta la koloron de la purpuro PIV defines purpuro like this: *purpur/o: 1 Violruĝa kolorilo, kiun la antikvuloj eltiris el konkoj de mureksoj k de parenca sp.: la Tira purpuro estis la plej ŝatata. 2 Ŝtofo, tinkturita per tiu kolorilo, k rigardata de la antikvuloj kiel apartaĵo de reĝoj, ...


13

Ol does translate to "than", but you can also think of it as more generally just indicating a comparison or difference. PIV lists these uses for it: por enkonduki la duan parton de neegaleca komparo -> to introduce the second part of an unequal comparison (e.g. Ŝi estas pli bela ol li) por enkonduki diferencon inter du ebloj, ecoj ks -> to introduce ...


12

Considering I've been running the Amikumu campaign all day, this word has been bothering me too. Then finally when I was writing up the FAQ for the question of how to get a member reward and a sponsor reward at the same time, I just naturally without hesitation translated this in my head as promespagi and it just worked, so I personally believe this is the ...


11

Uzu scivola aŭ scivoli kiam temas pri sola afero, kaj scivolema por priskribi personecon. Ekzemple: Mi scivolas pri via libro. Kio estas tio? Mi scivolas. Ŝi estas scivolema knabino. Mi demandas multe pro tio ke mi estas scivolema.


11

Certe kelkaj personoj miksas la du signifojn, sed ĝenerale, scivola estas portempa afero. vi ja ne povas kaŝi, ke vi estas iom scivola. Kaj scivolema estas pli malpli konstanta trajto: Alico [estas] afabla, bonkora, scivolema knabino. Ankaŭ okuloj, rigardoj, kaj vizaĝoj povas esti scivolaj.


11

It's a reference to "la interna ideo", which Zamenhof described like this: "La interna ideo of Esperanto, which is in no way obligatory for any individual Esperantist, but which [...] is and always should be key during Esperanto Congresses, is this: with a neutral linguistic foundation, that barriers between peoples be removed and that people become ...


10

Given that the original game is named “Smash Brothers” and not “Smash Siblings”, regardless of context, I would say that you could very well remove the ge- prefix.


10

La kompleta frazo estas: Mi petas pardonon.


10

Just think of kiom as a numeral like unu, du, tri...kiom? (one, two, three...how many?) Unua means first, dua is second, tria is third, dudeka is twentieth. Kioma is, well, there is no word for it in English (other languages do have such words), but you might imagine something like "how manyeth?". Saying kioma you are asking for an ordinal number: Kioma ...


10

A few years back, I created the Esperanto version the website PledgeBank.com (now sadly defunct). We just went with promesi then. The Esperanto site was called PromesoBanko.com and each "pledge" was just a "promeso". The scope of PledgeBank was broader than KickStarter, in that people weren't necessarily pledging money for a project, but could be pledging ...


10

The answer to your question is highly dependent on culture. Even within a single language and single country people disagree about when to stop calling a young female a "girl" and whether than happens at the same age for young males. When in doubt of what somebody means, ask. A good guide would be to treat males and females the same. Here's how I break it ...


10

"Ke" connects a verb to a phrase: Mi ne sciis ke li studis en Londono. Mirigas min ke ili sukcesis Mi ĝojas ke la suno brilas. "Kiu" connects a noun to a description: Mi ne antaŭe vidis la viron kiu staras tie. La knabino kiu grimpas la arbon estas mia filino. Ne parolu kun homojn kiujn vi ne konas. "Kiu" can be replaced with "that" or "which".


10

Kvankam is used to append information showing a cause or motive which doesn't have the usual result. mi vidas nenion, kvankam ĉio estas lumaZ; Tamen means simply "in spite of that". la knabo estis enlitigita. La maljuna avo tamen restis ĉe sia laboroZ; PIV (vortaro.net) has some notes about the differences. Inter la koncedaj subjunkcioj kvankam ...


10

greno is the general expression for crop/cereals as plants and raw material (tritiko, hordeo kaj sekalo estas speco de greno, tiu kamparano ne bredas bestojn, sed kultivas nur grenon). grajno is the grain you get from the crop (or similar plants, e.g. grajno de kafo), the concrete granules (al mi plaĉas pano kun plenaj grajnoj).


10

Fali means to fall. It is in Wiktionary here. So I guess falsidi is meant to be self-evident from the combination of the two roots, ie, that he fell down into a sitting position. Perhaps a good English word for this could be slump down.


9

Post is a preposition, meaning "after". It can function as an adverb together with other words, for example: Mi dormos post horo. Poste on the other hand, is an adverb on its own, meaning "later". Mi dormos poste.


9

Trans means "on the other side of". If you're on one side of the street and then you iras trans la straton - you will then be trans la strato (on the other side of the street.) (Trans la strato describes a location on the other side. Adding the -n (trans la straton) means there is motion toward that location. In contrast Tra includes the idea of passing ...


9

La Sentimulo is a greatly abridged retelling by Roger Imbert of The Bravo (1831), a novel by James Fenimore Cooper. It uses only the 450 root-words of the Zagreba Metodo and about a hundred extra which are included in a glossary. The passage you are referring to comes halfway through Chapter 2: „Prenu tiun ĉi leteron. Sub la Ponto de Sopiroj vi trovos ...


9

"Priskribi" is long established in Esperanto, and essentially functions as an independent word, much like "eldoni". "Pridiri" and "vortpentri" are not forms in normal Esperanto usage, although they might occur in some contexts. There's no reason to look for an alternative to "priskribi" in the sense of "to describe" either in speech or writing.


9

Kioma is used to ask about anything which is an ordered sequence. Here are some examples of it being used other than to ask the time. Kaj li rememoris (kioman fojon en ĉi tiu jaro!) la maljustaĵojn De la kioma etaĝo vi estas? ĝis kioma grado (dua, tria, ktp.) de kioma tago kaj de kiu monato Kiome is much less common. My take is that it's a synonym for ...


9

The traditional word for "probably" is "verŝajne". It is a compound word made from "vera" ('true') and "ŝajni" ('to seem'). So literally it means 'true-seemingly', but from the outset it has only been used in the fixed meaning of 'probably'. Zamenhof formed it in the manner of the German word "wahrscheinlich". The word "probable" is one of the so-called ...


9

This is a very interesting question. I think reduplication plays a role in Esperanto which hasn’t been sufficiently explored yet. What is the difference between Mi foje ludas ŝakon and Mi fojfoje ludas ŝakon and between Post multaj klopodoj nia teamo fine venkis and Post multaj klopodoj nia teamo finfine venkis ? As far as I can tell, the ...


9

Someone said to me years ago that language is not math. That is, when trying to express something in Esperanto, so-called "logic" can only take us so far. Eventually we have to use common sense, tradition, and the principle of neceso kaj sufiĉo. That is, there may not be an answer to these questions. It's true, however, that there are differences between ...


9

There is no difference in meaning between both words and both words are understood. You can simply choose which word you prefer to use. I myself usually prefer the forms with the letter "ĥ".


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