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The Wikipedia article about Chess uses these words for the different pieces of the game: Reĝo, Damo, Turo, Ĉevalo, Kuriero, Peono. Who first coined these terms?

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    They seem to be mostly related to the German terms: König, Dame, Turm ("tower", eng. rook), Springer (lit. "jumper", ie horse), Läufer (lit. "runner"). – Oliver Mason Sep 14 '16 at 8:26
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Zamenhof provided the terms for chess pieces in response to someone who asked for them. It's on the internet somewhere, but my google-fu is failing me right now.

However, the base terms were established very early on, and the game itself (ŝako) is a Fundamento word.

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In Lingvo Internacia N-ro 9 (the Google Books says Volume 8, for some reason), there's an article called Esperanto por Ŝakludantoj, which uses almost all of the same terms. The only difference is that instead of peono, the author (I'm guessing Zamenhoff, but I could be wrong) uses soldato.

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