23

No, they are not entirely interchangeable any more than a pair like the following are entirely interchangeable. He is the most pleasant one of the bunch. He is the least annoying one of the bunch. This particular pair (malplej juna / plej maljuna) may lead you to point to the same person, but they are not completely interchangeable since they draw your ...


22

Bla bla — blah blah Um um um — mumble mumble Babil babil — natter natter Klaĉ klaĉ — gossip gossip http://vortaro.net/#blabla I think most European languages use the blabla formula.


21

The formal expression: Kun afablaj salutoj If you consider the person a friend: Kun amikaj salutoj More informally: Amike salutas Or even simpler: Amike To really closed friends or beloved ones: Brakume Ame


20

Simple rule of thumb - if you are able to substitute "whether" (I don't know whether he's friendly) then use "ĉu".


17

olda is a neologism which can mean either maljuna or malnova like the English word "old". It appears in the dictionary Simplaj Samsignifaj Vortoj which is a list of recommendations about good usage of particular words: old·a → maljun·a, mal·nov·a The → means that they recommend against using the word and the alternative should be used instead. I would ...


17

The words following se provide the condition under which the other clause becomes relevant. So, Mi ne scias se li estas amika means "If it is the case that he is friendly, then I do not know." You need ĉu to express the fact that scias controls the other clause in the manner of ke. (Note that amika is slightly stronger than the English friendly, which ...


17

I can explain the difference with a simple sentence: "Mi flaras la floron. La floro odoras bone." flari: to sense a smell released by something with one's nose (the subject is a person) odori: to release a certain smell, perceptible with one's nose (the subject is an object that releases the smell)


15

It's very common and perfectly OK to use teamo as a synonym for skipo. Look up the use of "teamo" at tekstaro.com. It seems most uses in the magazine Monato are nothing to do with sport, and in La Ondo de Esperanto (published in Russia) there are more references to sport, but also "la redakcia teamo", "la pariza teamo de UEA", etc.


14

The root eksplik- does not exist in Akademia vortaro. So I recommend to prefer klarigi over ekspliki as it is more Esperantesque. There's no clear difference in the meaning. I never use ekspliki and, according to my experience, klarigi is way more common. eksplik- is probably a francism.


14

"gajni" comes from the English "to gain", and has more or less the same meaning as "to gain", i.e. it generally expresses the idea of receiving something. You can use it to translate "to win", especially in situations when you could replace "to win" by "to gain" in English. For example, you can say "gajni premion" for "to win a prize", as you can also say "...


14

I ran a search on the phrase 'la retejo' using tekstaro.com, and found that all the relevant results used 'en'. Some examples are below: Aktualaj informoj pri HELA estas en la retejo de Varsovia Vento. La suba teksto estas ĉerpita el pli ampleksa raporto en la retejo de FEB. 277 elektronikaj libroj en formato PDF, kun entute 39329 paĝoj, estas senpage ...


13

A usual expression is Kion vi celas? More precise would be "Kion vi celas diri?" but you'd drop "diri" in colloquial language.


13

Your two sentences mean the same thing. However, krom means "besides", and as a result there are situations in which it could mean both "except" and "as well as". Mi havas, krom la ŝlosilo, ĉion bezonatan. I have, besides the key, everything I need. Do you have the key or not? To distinguish the two, we can say: NO: Mi havas, ...


13

Je is an abstract preposition. One of its frequent uses is for times and dates: Tio okazos je la deka horo. That will happen at ten o' clock. Tio okazos je la deka de Oktobro. That will happen on the tenth of October. Notice that dum and en won't work for "o' clock", as dum la unua horo means "during the first hour", i.e. before one o' ...


12

The Internet is La Interreto, but just as Internet in English has transformed over the years to be lowercase as internet, the same applies to Esperanto, so today I would recommend calling it interreto (literally inter-web), which is also the word we officially teach in Duolingo's Esperanto course for English speakers. Note that in English, this exact same ...


12

savi — to rescue from danger or preserve from the threat of loss; to provide salvation to savi ion al iu — to rescue something for someone ŝpari, rezervi — to conserve, to save up (money, time, etc) ŝpari al iu — to save someone (effort, etc) konservi — to have (or place) in safekeeping, to hang on to konservi dosieron — to save a file evitigi ion al ...


12

Usually, the object of the verb demandi is the person being asked, e.g. Li demandis min pri la historio de la loko. In Tekstaro, if you search "demandon", you will find several examples of fari demandon meaning "to ask a question". E.g. permesu, ke mi faru demandon. This is slightly different than starigi demandon which means "to pose a question".


12

Zamenhof's intuition was that human beings could be li, ŝi, or ĝi, but that animals are always ĝi. Kiam oni parolas pri bestoj, mi konsilas ĉiam uzi nur la senseksan pronomon “ĝi”, — ne sole kiam (en la plimulto da okazoj) la sekso de la priparolata besto estas por ni indiferenta, sed eĉ en tiaj okazoj, kiam ni parolas precize pri la sekso de la besto. En ...


11

You can use inverse: Mi faru la demandojn kaj vi respondu, kaj poste/refoje inverse. Mi faros demandojn al kiuj vi respondu, kaj poste ni interŝanĝu (rolojn). I wouldn't use male because that means "not so, on the contrary": Mi ne faros demandojn, male! mi aŭskultos silente.


11

The expressions "ne plu" and "jam ne" mean the same thing. "ne plu" is significantly more common, but "jam ne" is not wrong.


11

There's a rather good list of false friends on Wikibooks: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Esperanto/Appendix/False_friends#English There are quite many, but looking through them might be a good idea, even for a beginner.


11

They are two different words. From Vortaro: Neŭtra Tia, ke ĝi apartenas nek al unu nek al alia el du kategorioj. That which belongs to neither of two categories. Examples: Neither man or woman, acidic or alkaline, positive or negative (charge). Neŭtrala Ne partoprenanta, nek volanta partopreni en diskuto, konflikto, milito. Not participating, nor ...


11

They are all essentially the same, and work as translations both of "the past" and "his/her past" etc. La estinteco is "that which was." It forms part of the triad: estinteco — estanteco — estonteco that which was — that which is — that which shall be La pasinteco is "that which has passed." pasinteco — nuno — ...


11

They're different. While "holiday" is a valid translation for both, the two have different meanings (which are preserved in English). The PIV has the following definitions for the two words: festo. Publikaj aŭ privataj ceremonioj k plezuroj por festi iun okazaĵon: festo de Kristnasko, de Budhonasko, de Pasko, de Pentekosto, de la Unua de Majo, de ...


11

I would use skipo, as this is technically the correct meaning you want. I personally consider the use of teamo an Anglicism. English has only one word for both concepts: team. So people get confused. But it's not like that in, say, Bulgarian: отбор = teamo екип = skipo (which also sounds very similar, like: ekip) Mi uzus skipo, ĉar fakte tiu ...


11

To this list we can add ŝofori. I've been asking myself this same question for close to 20 years and I've come to the conclusion that there is no obvious best answer. Each one at times seems to not quite to fit, and I notice that people tend to pick based on a number of factors, including the word that their Esperanto teacher used as well as national ...


11

Kromnomo - nickname Kaŝnomo - alias, pen name; a fake name to hide your real name Karesnomo - a familiar name (for friends only) So, if you're asking someone with a long or difficult name if you can call them something else, it would be kromnomo -- unless you want to call him "honey" or "Billy Buttons."


10

The closest verb for to control is probably regi. In some contexts, you might also use stiri, konduki, etc.


10

The main choices for "walk" are: iri to go. In some contexts it may be easy to guess that you walked. piediri to go on foot. Specifying that you walked. (This is the best choice for your last question.) promeni to go for a walk. Recreational. ekskursi to hike. paŝi to take steps. Any situation in which you want to evoke the image of a short walk, a few ...


10

You can do it either way. From Fratoj Grimm “Refreŝigu vin. La bovino ne donados lakton, ŝi estas maljuna bruto, ŝi povas taŭgi nur kiel tirbesto aŭ en buĉejo.” From Malnova Testamento Kaj oni forbruligu la bovinon antaŭ liaj okuloj: ĝian felon kaj ĝian karnon kaj ĝian sangon kune kun ĝia sterko oni forbruligu.


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