24

Simply put, it works like this: Iri al la domo means you travel some distance to the house, but you don't necessarily enter it. The journey to the house is the main point. Iri en la domon means you go into the house, but you could have been standing right next to it before going inside. Entering the house is the main point. For the one in the middle of ...


16

“per” denotes who or what helps the sentence happen. It can denote an instrument: Bati iun per bastono. Trafi du celojn per unu ŝtono. Ni vidas per la okuloj kaj aŭdas per la oreloj. It can denote an intermediary actor: Sendi leteron per servisto. It can denote a body part serving as a locus for some action: Teni la hundon per la oreloj. It can denote ...


14

Both are correct, and they have practically the same meaning. By themselves, pro and por have quite different meanings. Basically, pro means 'because of' and por means 'for'. Pretty much all the meanings of English for can be expressed with por, with the exception of the meaning of because of: If you want to say "for that reason", you have to say "pro tiu ...


14

I ran a search on the phrase 'la retejo' using tekstaro.com, and found that all the relevant results used 'en'. Some examples are below: Aktualaj informoj pri HELA estas en la retejo de Varsovia Vento. La suba teksto estas ĉerpita el pli ampleksa raporto en la retejo de FEB. 277 elektronikaj libroj en formato PDF, kun entute 39329 paĝoj, estas senpage ...


12

Ol does translate to "than", but you can also think of it as more generally just indicating a comparison or difference. PIV lists these uses for it: por enkonduki la duan parton de neegaleca komparo -> to introduce the second part of an unequal comparison (e.g. Ŝi estas pli bela ol li) por enkonduki diferencon inter du ebloj, ecoj ks -> to introduce ...


12

Da and de both mean "of". Da is strictly used for quantities and measures. De is for possession and other uses. Without the use of da here, there would be no relation between kiom and gekuzoj. da Prep. uzata por rilatigi du vortojn aŭ sintagmojn, el kiuj la unua esprimas mezuron (kvanton, pezon, longon, volumenon k.a.) de la dua Preposition used to ...


12

Je is not intended for occasions of doubt, but rather when a preposition is needed but none of the defined prepositions are suitable. In practice, je is used infrequently, and most often in set phrases. Time espressions (je la tria horo) je via sano je la barbo de Zamenhof! plena je io (although plena de io is more common.) graveda je knabo mi kredas je Dio


11

You can follow the proposal of dictionary Reta Vortaro: krom always means in addition to, except when there is a negative. However, this preposition is flexible enough and not so easy to translate literally, because of that I recommend you to use escepte de when you think the meaning might be confusing. http://www.reta-vortaro.de/revo/art/krom.html#krom.0


11

The preposition "je" should only be used if one of the more precise prepositions doesn't apply to a particular relationship. In practice, the most common use is with time ("je la naŭa horo matene") and with a few other forms like "Mi tenos vin je la brako". While replacing any other preposition with "je" will leave a grammatically correct structure, there'...


11

”upside down” could be translated as renversita. PIV gives some examples, such as: li renversis la vinbotelon, por ĝui ĝis la lasta guto ”he turned the wine bottle upside-down in order to enjoy even the last drop”. I’m not sure about ”inside out”, though. I guess it could be reversita – PIV mentions ”reversi” in the context of re-sewing clothes with the ...


10

When the vote is about whether the person should be affected in a negative way, e.g. be banned from a commnunity, one can say "voĉdoni kontraŭ iu".


10

"Krom" can be used to express an exception as well as an addition. The difference is sometimes difficult to tell without context. In the case of Krom Petro la tuta familio vojaĝis. Peter did not travel (if the context does not tell, that did). One can assume that Peter is member of the family, so it wouldn't make sense to mention Peter as an addition, ...


10

Kiom is used without da in questions such as Kiom estas la duoblo de 6?, or Kiom estas la tempo?. It can be translated as "how much" followed by a numerical expression (algebraic, or of time): "How much is the double of 6?", "How much is the time" (not very elegant translation!) Cousins are not a numerical expressions, so you add da to turn it into one: "...


10

Yes, you need the accusative. There are many examples in the Tekstaro that would illustrate. Tie ili estis devigataj atendi pli ol unu horon; Ned ne atendis pli ol kvin minutojn por la ekzameno Diskuto daŭris pli ol tri horojn. Litovoj dormas mezume ne pli ol 6 horojn: There are also examples with a preposition. post ne pli ol du horoj En la daŭro de ...


10

The question mixes up two things, which should be separated: 1) "to play something", where "something" names the kind of game, is just ludi ion: "infanoj ludadis militon sur la herbo" (children were playing war on the meadow; Zamenhof) 2) "to play with something", where "something" names the toy, has two competing expressions: -ludi kun io: This is found ...


9

One thing we can say for sure is what vorto montra means. The Ekzercaro de la Fundamento de Esperanto also mentions vortojn montrajn. Se ni aldonas la literon “t”, ni ricevas vortojn montrajn: tia, tial, tiam, tie, tiel, ties, tio, tiom, tiu. [...] Aldonante al la vortoj montraj la vorton “ĉi”, ni ricevas montron pli proksiman For several reasons, you'll ...


9

Mi kutimas diri "en la reto", same kiel "en la libro"


9

Kun always means "together with." Mi lernas kun Duolingo implies that Duolingo is learning along with you. Per is the right choice here.


9

Mi opinias, ke tiu uzo estas ĝusta, kaj mi kredas, ke ĉi tiu ekzemplo zamenhofa, kiun mi trovis en PMEG, pruvas tion: Ĉiu, kiu deziras partopreni en la konkurso, devas sendi ne pli malfrue ol ĝis la 1-a Decembro 1895 […] raporton. OV.200 Ĉi tie Zamenhof esprimis dufoje la saman sencon. Oni povus aŭ forigi ne pli malfrue ol, aŭ anstataŭigi ĝis per N-finaĵo....


9

Prepositions usually occur in front of a noun phrase, so the only way there can be more than one in a row is if the noun phrase itself is a prepositional phrase, as in the example He looked up from under the table, where under the table is the location that is the complement of from. Note that up here is not a preposition but a particle belonging to look up. ...


8

Your two sentences mean different things. Dum implies duration. En suggests that something happened within the period. Mi dormis en la festotago. At some point you slept. Mi dormis dum la festotago. You spent your festival day sleeping.


8

I have trouble with this too, not because of confusion over what part of speech to use, but because Esperanto seems to have a few words with similar meanings - and it seems to divide the semantic space differently from how English does. Inversa means to be in the opposite position or direction. Renversita means turned upside-down or knocked over. La fundon ...


7

La ŝtato Kalifornio Quotation marks are not required. Certainly don't use de.


7

Prepositions are one of the most inconsistent areas for translation. All it takes for me to remember that is to remind myself that while I was "in college" here in the US, my Canadian friends were "at University". We quite literally mean the same thing. StackEdo is technically correct in suggesting je, although it isn't the best choice. Je is the ...


7

That preposition could have been taken from Bulgarian, which has the same preposition: Po kvar personoj sidas ĉe la (3) tabloj. Every time 4 persons sit at the (3) tables = 12 persons. 4 Persons are sitting at each table. I have taken this weird example by choice: po here functions more like an adverb, and even Zamenhof also used the accusative with po. ...


7

From Vortaro (among other definitons of the word): ĝis Prep., montranta la punkton, kiun la ago atingas, sed ne trans- aŭ preter-pasas Preposition showing the point which an action attains, but not beyond. Examples: Snow hides only until spring. neĝo kaŝas nur ĝis printempo. He sees only until the end of his nose. li vidas nur ĝis la pinto de sia nazo....


7

Lyubomir jam respondis kun atesto Zamenhofa, ke tiu lingvouzo estas bona. Mi volas ĉi tie nur aldoni pravigon lingvan: La prepozicio ĝis esprimas la inkluzivatan finpunkton de ado (komparu kun mi donos ĝin antaŭ vendredo: vendrede estus jam tro malfrue, aŭ mi donos ĝin dum vendredo: ĵaŭde estus tro frue), sed ĝi nenion diras la kvalito de la ado. Teorie do ...


7

This is a great question. It deserves a great answer. This is the best I can come up with on short notice. You're absolutely right that por ke is common and pro ke is basically unheard of. My advice: do not use pro ke. Why is this? My first thought was "tradition" (i.e. "just cos"), but that's not always a good answer. My second thought was that ...


7

As much as English "federation of minor planets" conveys what you intend, also Esperanto "Federacio de (malgrandaj) planedoj" is the adequate expression. There is no more specific preposition for "composed of". When you speak about something concrete made of certain elements, the preposition el would be the right choice (kuko el faruno, butero kaj ovoj 'a ...


6

"pro" indicates a cause or a reason for something. "por" indicates something that is favored somehow. Thanking for something usually means, that this something is your reason to be thankful, so it should be "pro". You could argue, that by thanking in advance for something (like an answer), you are actually favoring this something, but to me this is a bit ...


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